CHEM 1150: The Language of Chemistry

question

How many naturally occurring elements are there?
answer

88
question

T/F: Everything on the planet is made from the 88 naturally occurring elements.
answer

True
question

One can divide the planet into two different entities, which are…
answer

Earth’s Crust (Land, air, and water) and Mammals
question

When we say “Earth’s crust,” we mean which three components?
answer

Land, air, and water
question

What is the most common element in Earth’s crust by relative mass?
answer

Oxygen (49.2%)
question

How much of the Earth’s crust consists of Oxygen?
answer

49.2%
question

What are the top five most common elements in Earth’s crust?
answer

Oxygen (49.2%), Silicon (25.7%), Aluminum (7.5%), Iron (4.71%) and Calcium (3.39%)
question

How much percent of Earth’s crust is Carbon?
answer

.08%
question

What is the most common element in mammals?
answer

Oxygen (65%)
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What is the second most common element in mammals?
answer

Carbon (18%)
question

What are the top five most common elements in mammals?
answer

Oxygen (65%), Carbon (18%), Hydrogen (10%), Nitrogen (3%), and Calcium (1.4%)
question

Why did we become Carbon-based life forms?
answer

Because carbon bonds with itself
question

From which two languages are the symbols of some elements derived?
answer

Latin and Greek
question

Where is atomic mass located on the periodic table?
answer

Below the element’s symbol
question

Where is the atomic number located on the periodic table?
answer

Above the symbol
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What are four reasons why gold is valued?
answer

It’s rare, beautiful, shiny, and does not tarnish
question

What did chemists in the 1800s want to know about elements?
answer

What made them different
question

What was John Dalton’s occupation?
answer

British schoolteacher and scientist
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What did John Dalton want to figure out?
answer

What makes elements different
question

From where is John Dalton?
answer

Britain (schoolteacher and scientist)
question

What were the three things people int he 18th century knew about natural materials?
answer

1) Most natural materials were mixtures of pure substances.
2) Pure substances were either elements or mixtures of elements (compounds)
3) A given compound always contained the same mass % of the elements
question

What was the first thing people in the 18th century knew about natural materials?
answer

Most natural materials were mixtures of pure substances
question

What was the second thing people of the 18th century knew about natural materials?
answer

Pure substances were either elements or mixtures of elements (compounds)
question

What was the third thing people of the 18th century knew about natural materials?
answer

A given compound always contained the same mass % of the elements
question

What is the Law of Constant Proportions?
answer

A given compound always contains the same mass percentage of the elements
question

What was the smallest unit people knew of in the 18th century?
answer

Element
question

Why did Dalton know that elements differed?
answer

Because he figured they are made up of something else (atoms)
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What did Dalton deduce?
answer

That elements are made up of atoms
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What year did Dalton publish his Atomic Theory?
answer

1808
question

Who published the first Atomic Theory, and in what year?
answer

Dalton 1808
question

What were Dalton’s 5 postulates in the Atomic Theory?
answer

1) Elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms.
2) All atoms of a given element are identical.
3) Atoms of one element are different than atoms of other elements.
4) Atoms of elements can combine to form compounds.
5) Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes.
question

What was Dalton’s first postulate?
answer

Elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms
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What was Dalton’s second postulate?
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All atoms of a given element are identical
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What was Dalton’s third postulate?
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Atoms of one element are different than atoms of other elements.
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What was Dalton’s fourth postulate?
answer

Atoms of different elements can combine to form compounds.
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What was Dalton’s fifth postulate?
answer

Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes.
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About which postulates was Dalton mistaken?
answer

#2 (because of isotopes) and #5 (because atoms can be split)
question

Why was Dalton wrong about the second postulate?
answer

Because of isotopes
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Why was Dalton wrong about his fifth postulate?
answer

Because atoms can be split
question

After Dalton reasoned that elements are different because atoms are different, what did people start to wonder?
answer

What makes atoms different?
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Dalton took us from thinking on the element level to what level?
answer

To the atomic level
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T/F: Dalton knew why atoms differed.
answer

False; he knew that elements differed because their atoms differed, but he did not know why atoms differed.
question

T/F: Dalton knew why elements differed.
answer

True; Dalton knew that elements differed because of their atoms.
question

Which instrument did J J Thomson use in his famous experiments?
answer

Cathode Ray Tube
question

What happened in JJ Thomson’s first experiment?
answer

Thomson used a beam that had an electrical charge, put slits on an electrometer, and shut heat into it. He then used the magnet to have the beam hit the slits.
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In Thomson’s first experiment, what creates the electrical beam?
answer

The charge hitting the electrometer creates the electrical beam.
question

T/F: In Thomson’s first experiment, the beam and the charge are separate components?
answer

False; the beam and the charge are the same thing.
question

What was the goal of Thomson’s second experiment?
answer

To determine whether the electrical charge was positive or negative.
question

What did Thomson do in his second experiment?
answer

He fired electrons through the CRT, which was attached to a battery.
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What did Thomson find as a result of his second experiment?
answer

The beam has a negative charge.
question

What did Thomson find as a result of his first experiment?
answer

The beam and the charge are the same thing.
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What was the central question Thomson asked in his third experiment?
answer

How strong does the magnet have to be to deflect the beam?
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Describe Thomson’s third experiment?
answer

Thomson used a complicated CRT and used a magnet to deflect the beam. He used magnets of different strengths to see whether they deflected the beam.
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What did Thomson find as a result of the third experiment?
answer

He finds that it’s easy to move the team, meaning two things: 1)Particles are very light, or 2) Particles have a lot of charge.
question

Thomson found in his third experiment that it was easy to move the beam, meaning what two possibilities?
answer

1) Particles are very light, or
2) Particles have a lot of charge.
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What did Thomson call the particles he discovered?
answer

Corpuscles
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What charge did Thomson know the corpuscles he discovered to be?
answer

Negative.
question

Since Thomson knew the corpuscles were negatively charged, he assumed what?
answer

That there are also positively charged particles.
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Thomson’s experiments showed that the model of the atom was more than just a ball; that is, it is a ball with what?
answer

Positively and negatively charged particles.
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What was Thomson’s model of the atom called?
answer

Plum pudding model
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In what year was the electron discovered?
answer

1897
question

Who named the electron?
answer

George Johnstone Stoney
question

What was the nationality of the man who named the electron?
answer

Irish (George Johnstone Stoney)
question

What were Robert Millikan’s famous experiments called?
answer

The oil drop experiments
question

What did the oil drop experiments involve?
answer

X-Rays putting charge onto oil droplets, a positively-charged plate with droplets that went through a hole, and varying the voltage of the plate, causing the drops to fly upwards against the pull of gravity.
question

What did Millikan use to put charge onto the oil droplets in his experiment?
answer

X-Rays
question

What charge did the plate Millikan used in his oil drop experiments have?
answer

Positive charge
question

What did Millikan do to the plate in the oil drop experiment, and what happened as a result?
answer

He varies the voltage of the plate, causing the drops to reverse gravity.
question

What is the charge of a single electron?
answer

1.6*10-19 coulombs
question

In Millikan’s experiment, if the oil droplets did not have voltage, what determined the rate at which they fell?
answer

Mass of droplets and viscosity of the air (how thick the air is/wind resistance)
question

When Millikan turned the voltage on, what happened to the oil droplets?
answer

Some fell straight down, but others stopped in mid air or started going in reverse.
question

What happened to the oil drops that were suspended in mid air?
answer

They were suspended at different heights in the container at regular intervals.
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What did Millikan conclude after he saw that the oil drops were suspended at regular intervals?
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He said they had different numbers of electrons
question

How did Millikan determine the charge of the electron?
answer

By changing the voltage, he determined the difference in voltage between each “line” of particles to be 1.6 *10^-19 coulombs
question

What were Millikan’s main conclusions about the electron?
answer

The charge was very small and negative and that they are very light (since they can be reflected)
question

How did Millikan know that electrons were very light?
answer

Because they could be reflected
question

Why did Millikan guess that there are positive particles in atoms?
answer

He knew about the existence of the electron and its negative charge but knew that atoms overall have no net charge, so there must be positive particles.
question

Which scientist worked with alpha particles?
answer

Rutherford
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HOw many times heavier than electrons are alpha particles?
answer

7500 times heavier
question

Alpha particles can be equated to what element’s nucleus?
answer

Helium nucleus
question

What is another name for Rutherford’s gold foil experiment?
answer

The Geiger Marsden experiment
question

What is another name for the Geiger Marsden experiment?
answer

Rutherford’s gold foil experiment
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Which element’s nucleus did Rutherford work with?
answer

Polonium nucleus
question

How did Rutherford augment the gold foil he used in his experiment?
answer

He pounded it into super thin layers
question

What did Rutherford do to the gold foil that he pounded into super thin layers?
answer

He shot alpha particles at it
question

What happened to the alpha particles that Rutherford shot at the gold foil?
answer

Most went straight through the gold foil, but some were reflected in random directions.
question

What did Rutherford conclude about the gold foil after he realized that some of the alpha particles were being reflected?
answer

The gold foil is NOT homogenous
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What did Rutherford conclude about the plum pudding model?
answer

It is not correct.
question

Who disproved the plum pudding model of the atom?
answer

Ernest Rutherford
question

What did Rutherford shoot the alpha particles through before they hit the gold foil?
answer

A lead box
question

Instead of supporting the plum pudding model, how did Rutherford describe the atom?
answer

A very dense, positively-charged core surrounded by a large expanse of space with nothing but some electrons.
question

What did Rutherford call the positive parts of the nucleus?
answer

Protons
question

When were protons named by Rutherford?
answer

1919
question

Why did Rutherford know the proton is more massive than the electron?
answer

Because the proton hit the heavy alpha particles
question

Who discovered the neutron?
answer

James Chadwick
question

Why was the neutron the hardest subatomic particle to discover?
answer

It has no charge
question

What kind of experiment did Chadwick set up to discover the neutron?
answer

An indirect/secondary collision experiment
question

What did Chadwick use in his secondary collision experiment?
answer

Polonium as a source and alpha particles
question

Why did Chadwick use a positive plate in his experiment?
answer

To deflect protons
question

What kind of foil did Chadwick use in his experiment?
answer

Beryllium foil
question

Describe Chadwick’s indirect/secondary collision experiment.
answer

Chadwick used polonium as a source, fired it at Be foil, particles came loose, protons escaped, the particles hit paraffin wax containing nitrogen gas, and then there was a nucleus detector at the end.
question

What happened to the nitrogen nucleus in Chadwick’s experiment?
answer

It got ejected, showing that there is an uncharged neutron particle
question

In what year was the neutron discovered, and by whom?
answer

Chadwick in 1932
question

What happened to the neutrons in Chadwick’s experiment after they passed through the Be foil?
answer

They collided with nitrogen gas and ejected parts of the nucleus from nitrogen
question

How did Chadwick know something without a charge was knocking the protons out?
answer

Because they used the Be foil to eject any particles with positive charge before they hit the paraffin wax with nitrogen gas
question

Besides the Be foil that knocked the protons out, how else did Chadwick know that the particles he discovered had no charge?
answer

Because the magnetic fields did not push away the neutrons
question

Who discovered isotopes and when?
answer

Frederick Soddy in 1913
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How did Soddy describe isotopes?
answer

“Same outside, different inside”
question

What type of compounds did Soddy work with?
answer

Radioactive compounds (Uranium)
question

With what element did Frederick Soddy work?
answer

Uranium
question

What did Soddy find about the behavior of uranium?
answer

Uranium underwent the same chemical reactions but some acted differently radioactively.
question

What was the order of the discovery of the subatomic particles?
answer

Electrons, protons, then neutrons
question

How did Thomson inspire Chadwick to do his secondary collision test and eventually discover the neutron?
answer

Thomson was ionizing Ne and shooting them through space and deflecting them with a magnetic field. He looked at the trajectory of the moving ions and saw two particles shooting off, but didn’t realize that this meant that they had different masses due to different numbers of neutrons.
question

What kind of emission spectrum did Niels Bohr study?
answer

Hydrogen emission spectrum
question

What did Niels Bohr say about the core of he atom?
answer

He said there is a nuclear core in the atom.
question

Describe Bohr’s model of the atom.
answer

There is a nuclear core in the atom and electrons circulate around orbits surrounding the nuclear core
question

How did Bohr describe electron orbitals?
answer

He called them quantized
question

What did Bohr mean when he said electron orbitals are quantized?
answer

They’re at discreet intervals
question

After what is Bohr’s model of the atom modeled?
answer

The solar system
question

What about Bohr’s model of the atom was correct?
answer

The existence of quantized orbitals
question

In how many dimensions did Bohr describe the atom?
answer

2-dimensions (he was wrong)
question

What’s another name for Bohr’s model of the atom?
answer

Planetary model
question

Bohr said that electrons are localized to what?
answer

Orbits
question

What was Louis de Broglie’s hypothesis?
answer

Any moving particle or object has an associated wave
question

Who discovered that atoms are three dimensional?
answer

Erwin Schroedinger
question

What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
answer

You cannot know both the location and momentum of an electron at any given time
question

What’s the modern view of the atom?
answer

A dense nuclear core surrounded by 3-D shapes with electrons
question

T/F: Even our best microscopes nowadays cannot see atoms.
answer

True
question

Who figured out how to see very small things?
answer

Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer
question

What did Binning and Rohrer use to see very small things?
answer

Scanning tunneling microscope
question

What does STM Schematic stand for?
answer

Scanning tunneling microscope
question

What are the components of an STM schematic?
answer

A crystal attached to a fine metal tip that is held above an atomic surface
question

How does an STM schematic work?
answer

It applies stimulus to the crystal that movies it up and down, causing the material to move left and right in waves. The electrons jump from the surface of the atom to the metal tip, and the greater the electrical current, the closer one is to the atom
question

What is piezoelectricity?
answer

Crystals changing shape in response to stimuli
question

What did Binning and Rohrer discover about the atom using STM?
answer

They could tell that orbitals are 3-D and that atoms are circular
question

How many times larger than the nucleus is the atom?
answer

100,000
question

How big is the nucleus?
answer

10^-13 cm
question

How big is the atom?
answer

10^-8 cm
question

What’s the charge and mass of the electron?
answer

Charge is -1 and mass is 9.11*10^-31 kg
question

What is the charge and mass of the proton?
answer

+1 charge and mass is 1.67*10^-27 kg
question

What is the charge and mass of the neutron?
answer

Charge is 0 and mass is -1.6929*10-27 kg
question

What are the two ways to describe an electron?
answer

In terms of the orbitals they occupy and their quantum numbers
question

What do quantum numbers describe?
answer

Where the electron resides?
question

How many quantum numbers are there?
answer

4
question

T/F: A few electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers.
answer

False
question

What is the first quantum number and what’s it called?
answer

n, the Principle quantum number
question

What numerical values can the first quantum number take?
answer

n can be an integer greater than 0
question

What does it mean the lower n is?
answer

The closer an electron is to the nucleus
question

What does n represent?
answer

How many shells there are
question

What letter denotes the second quantum number and what’s it called?
answer

l, and it’s the Azimuthal quantum number
question

How is l defined and what values can it take?
answer

It is n-1 and it can be an integer greater than 0
question

What does the quantum number l describe?
answer

The subshell
question

The second quantum number equals the first quantum number less what?
answer

l = n-1
question

How do the values of l relate to the s, p, d, and f orbitals?
answer

0=s, 1=p, 2=d, f=3
question

What’s the third quantum number stand for and what’s its letter?
answer

m sub l and it is the magnetic quantum number
question

What are the possible values of m sub l?
answer

m sub l = integers between the negative and absolute value of l
question

What does a single value of m sub l imply?
answer

There is only an s orbital
question

What does l=1 mean?
answer

p orbitals
question

What does l=2 mean?
answer

d orbitals
question

What does l=3 mean?
answer

f orbitals
question

How many electrons can each orbital hold?
answer

A single pair of electron
question

What does the fourth quantum number stand for?
answer

Spin (m sub s)
question

Who founded the fourth quantum number?
answer

George Uhlenbeck and Sam Goudsmit
question

What are the possible values of the fourth quantum number?
answer

+1/2 or -1/2
question

Which quantum number does not depend on the other three?
answer

The fourth quantum number
question

T/F: Electrons in the same orbital have the same spin.
answer

False; electrons in the same orbital have different spins
question

How many electrons can the first shell hold?
answer

2
question

How many electrons can the second shell hold?
answer

8
question

How many electrons can the third shell hold?
answer

18
question

How many electrons can the fourth shell hold?
answer

32
question

How many electrons can shells beyond the fourth shell hold?
answer

32, because there are only four subshells
question

What are the quantum numbers associated with a 3 d electron?
answer

n=3
l=2
m sub l= -2, -1. 0, 1, 2
m sub s= +1/2, -1/2
question

As n gets larger, what happens to the energy?
answer

It gets larger as well
question

What does the Aufbau Process delineate?
answer

The order in which electron orbitals are filled
question

What is the energy of an electron?
answer

-2.178*10^-18(1/n^2) Joules
question

What is hydrogen’s spdf notation?
answer

1s^1
question

What’s the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
answer

No two electrons can have all four quantum numbers identical (but 3 can be)
question

Why do Cr and Cu favor different from predicted electron distributions?
answer

Because it’s more stable and results in lower energy (which is preferred)
question

How many electrons can each of the s, p, d, and f orbitals hold?
answer

s can hold 2, p 6, d 10, and f 14
question

What is the Law of Triads?
answer

There are trios of elements where one element had a mass that appeared to be the average of the other two
question

Who issued the Law of Triads?
answer

Dobereiner
question

Who proposed the Telluric Helix?
answer

Alexander der-Emile
question

What is the Telluric Helix?
answer

The properties of the atom are the properties of the numbers (the masses matter and are related to their properties)
question

What did Alexander der-Emile notice about elements?
answer

He noticed that they form a spiral around a helix and that similar elements are vertically aligned
question

Which two men published articles leading to the formation of the periodic table and in what year?
answer

1865: Meyer and Mendeleev
question

Of what did Meyer’s chart consist?
answer

Atomic volume on the y-axis and atomic mass on the x-axis
question

What did Meyer notice about his chart?
answer

There was periodicity (ups and downs)
question

What did Mendeleev do with der-Emile’s helix?
answer

He put it in table form, but left blanks in it
question

What did the blanks in Mendeleev’s table stand for?
answer

Elements that weren’t yet discovered
question

How did Mendeleev predict the missing elements?
answer

Due to periodicity
question

Of which undiscovered elements did Mendeleev predict the mass?
answer

Scandium, Gallium, Germanium, and Technetium
question

Besides predicting the existence of missing elements, what else did Mendeleev predict?
answer

He predicted that some current elements had incorrect masses
question

What were the two things about which Mendeleev was wrong?
answer

1) He missed the nobel gases
2) He predicted that there were 6 missing elements between hydrogen and lithium, but in reality there is only one (helium)
question

Who discovered the nobel gases?
answer

William Ramsay
question

What element did Ramsay notice was between Cl and K?
answer

Ar
question

What was the order of the discovery of the nobel gases?
answer

He, then Ar, then Kr, then Ne, then Xe
question

What were the four missing elements Mendeleev predicted?
answer

Sc, Ga, Ge, and Tc
question

For which two elements did Mendeleev correct molar volumes?
answer

Indium and Uranium
question

Which metals blow up when put in water?
answer

The alkali metals
question

Why do the alkali metals react vigorously with water?
answer

Because their final electron configuration is always s^1,w which is unstable
question

As you move away from the nucleus, does it become easier or harder to remove electrons?
answer

The farther one is from the nucleus, the easier it is to remove electrons
question

The more electrons an atom has, the easier or harder it is to remove them and ionize the element?
answer

Easier
question

What happens when you take an electron from an alkali metal?
answer

They become like noble gases
question

To what metals are the noble gases compared?
answer

The nobel metals (Gold, Copper, and Silver)
question

Why are the noble gases compared to the noble metals?
answer

Because these metals don’t react much (or tarnish)and noble gases don’t react much
question

What helped Mendeleev create the table?
answer

Periodic trends
question

Who discovered Radium and Polonium?
answer

Marie Curie
question

What did Pierre Curie demonstrate?
answer

Piezoelectricity
question

What kind of tube did Rontgen use to discover X-Rays?
answer

Lenard Tube
question

What did Rontgen initially think would stop the glowing coming from things in his room?
answer

Containing all visible light
question

What did Rontgen realize was escaping from the Lenard tube and causing the materials in his room to shimmer?
answer

A ray (that he called X-Rays)
question

What was Rontgen’s original X-Ray?
answer

His wife’s hand, called “Hand mit Ringin”
question

How does a Lenard tube (used to discover X-Rays) differ from a CRT?
answer

It has an aluminum seal on one end
question

What is phosphorescence?
answer

When a material absorbs energy and ultimately gives off energy in the form of light
question

Who say Rontgen’s X-Rays and was fascinated with phosphorence?
answer

Becquerel
question

What did Becqueral do after learning about Rontgen’s X-Rays?
answer

He took rocks with phosphorescence and tried to capture the light from the rocks as a picture on film
question

What did Becquerel discover?
answer

Radioactivity (he called it Becquerel radiation)
question

What is a nuclide?
answer

the nucleus of elements
question

What element was in Becquerel’s famous rocks?
answer

Uranium-92
question

Some isotopes of uranium are unstable, leading to what?
answer

Radioactive decay
question

Radioactive decay is accompanied by the release of what two things?
answer

Particles and/or pure energy
question

What are the five decay possibilities?
answer

Alpha particles, beta particles, positrons, gamma rays, and electron-capture
question

What is an alpha particle?
answer

A helium nucleus
question

What kind of charge does an alpha particle have?
answer

Positive charge
question

How many neutrons and protons does a helium atom have>
answer

2 protons and 2 neutrons
question

When U-238 undergoes alpha decay, what two elements are produced?
answer

234/90 Th and 4/2 He
question

The reactants’ protons + neutrons must equal what of the products?
answer

Its protons + neutrons
question

What blocks alpha particles?
answer

A sheet of paper
question

T/F: Alpha particles can be accompanied by other forms of radiation.
answer

True
question

Are alpha particles penetrative and dangerous?
answer

No
question

What are the super and subscripts of beta particles?
answer

0/-1
question

How many protons and neutrons does a beta particle have?
answer

0 protons and 0 neutrons (it is essentially an electron without any measurable mass but with a negative charge)
question

What is the difference between electrons and beta particles?
answer

Electrons are denoted by 0/-1 e and come from electronic shells, while beta particles originate in the nucleus
question

Where do beta particles originate?
answer

In the nucleus
question

Describe the penetrability of beta particles?
answer

They penetrate paper but are stopped by a cm of lead
question

How does Thorium undergo nuclear decay to produce beta particles?
answer

234/90Th–>234/91Pa + 0/-1B
question

What changes in a beta decay process?
answer

The nucleus
question

T/F: Radioactive nuclei sometimes decay into nonradioactive elements and sometimes into radioactive elements.
answer

True
question

A positron is essentially what of a beta particle?
answer

A positive version of a beta particle
question

How do you denote a positron?
answer

0/+1Beta
question

Show how positron emission would work on carbon.
answer

11/6C –> 11/5 Boron + 0/+1 Beta
question

T/F: Electron capture has a similar end result to positron emission.
answer

True
question

What happens in electron capture?
answer

Individual electrons are captured by the nucleus. They get sucked in and combined with protons into a neutron.
question

Why is electron capture similar to positron emission?
answer

The atomic number goes down.
question

What happens in electron capture once the electron is sucked into the nucleus?
answer

Once the electron is sucked into the nucleus, it creates a hole in the orbital and other electrons rush to fill the hole, giving off energy as they move shells
question

T/F: Positron emission is a process by which X-Rays exist.
answer

FALSE; electron capture is a process by which X-Rays exist (pure penetrating energy with no mass)
question

What kind of energy harms organisms?
answer

Pure penetrating energy (with no mass)
question

Besides electron capture, what is the other way X-Rays are created?
answer

Bremsstrahlung
question

Who discovered Bremsstrahlung?
answer

Rontgen
question

How did Roentgen discover Bremsstrahlung?
answer

He shot electrons at Aluminum
question

How did Rontgen’s shooting of electrons at Al work?
answer

The electrons slow down when it gets to the Al and as they slow, they transfer kinetic energy in the form of X-Rays
question

What are the only types of metals with which Bremsstrahlung works?
answer

Heavy metals
question

How are gamma rays formed?
answer

They come from “normal” decay processes that produce alpha or beta particles
question

Why are gamma rays dangerous?
answer

They are just pure energy
question

What’s the correlation between wavelength and danger?
answer

The shorter the wavelength, the more dangerous the radiation
question

What does it take to block gamma rays?
answer

10 cm of lead
question

How are gamma rays formed via the nucleus?
answer

They are formed by the reorganization of the nucleus and the energy that comes from it
question

How are gamma rays formed via the nucleus?
answer

They are formed by the reorganization of the nucleus and the energy that comes from it
question

How are gamma rays formed via the nucleus?
answer

They are formed by the reorganization of the nucleus and the energy that comes from it
question

What is the last stable nuclide?
answer

203/83 Bi
question

In most decay processes, which particles are emitted that lead to gamma ray emission?
answer

Both alpha and beta (high and low energy particles)
question

What is the Nuclear Shell Theory?
answer

The nucleus will fill its “shells” with protons and neutrons and they will reach certain numbers that are unstable to the nucleus
question

The larger/higher energy emittance of alpha and beta particles, the (lower or higher) the energy of the resulting gamma rays?
answer

Lower
question

When do magic numbers form?
answer

When the nucleus’s shell gets filled up.
question

Are magic numbers stable or unstable?
answer

Stable
question

What are the magic numbers for neutrons?
answer

2,8,20,28,50,82,126

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