Chem 1115 Unit 6

question

What are the states of matter?
answer

Gas(g),Liquid(l),Solid(s)
question

What are the properties of the Gas state(g)?
answer

Indefinite shape

Indefinite volume

Particles widely seperated

Particles moving rapidly

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What are the properties of the Liquid state(l)?
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indefinte shape

fixed volume

particles in close contact

particles can move past one another

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What are the properties of the Solid state(s)?
answer

fixed shape

fixed volume

particles in close contact

particles vibrate around a central position

question

What is the kenetic theory of gases?
answer

Theory that a gas contains small particles in constant random motion that have no attractive or repulsive forces between them or the walls of the container, are very far apart from each other with a very small negligible total volume compared to the container it occupys,

and has an average kinetic energy proportional to absolute temperature

question

How does kinetic molecular theory of gases explain why gases have low density?
answer

since gases are spread out and have little mass per unit of volume causes them to have a low density
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How does kinetic molecular theory of gases explain why gases are highly compressible?
answer

since total gas volume is small and the particles are far apart, the container volume can be reduced considerably and still leave space between the gas particles
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How does kinetic molecular theory of gases explain why gases have no definite shape or volume?
answer

because gases are in constant, random motion and therefore reach all parts of any container they are in
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How does kinetic molecular theory of gases explain why gases diffuse?
answer

since gas particles are in constant,random motion. if the container is opened the gas particles move out  into the surrondings
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What is diffusion?
answer

spontaneous movement from a region of high partial pressure to a region of low partial pressure.
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What is pressure?
answer

Force exerted per unit of area
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What is the equation for pressure?
answer

P(Pressure)=F(Force)

                  A(Area)

 

question

What is the equation for Kinetic Energy?
answer

KE(Kinetic Energy)=1/2M(mass)*V2(velocity)
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What is the average KE(Kinetic Energy) proportional to?
answer

AVG KE is directly proportional to T(Temperature)
question

How does the Kinetic Moleculat Theory of Gases explain why gases never settle?
answer

since there is no attraction or repulsion between gas particles no net energy is lost when particles come in contact with each other or the container. this also explains why the travel in straight lines between collisions.
question

1 atm(atmosphere)=How many Torr, and mmHG?
answer

760
question

How many mmHG=1 Torr?
answer

1
question

What is a barometer?
answer

Device used to measeure atmospheric pressure
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What is a manometer?
answer

A device used to measure gas pressure inside a reaction vessel
question

What is Boyle’s Law(Pressure-Volume Law)?
answer

at a constant amount of gas at a constant temperature

V(Volume) is inversely related to P(Pressure)

question

What is the Pressure-Volume Law equation?
answer

P1V1=P2V2
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What is Charles’s Law(Volume-Temperature Law)?
answer

For a fixed (constant) amount of gas at a constant pressure

T(Temperature) is directly proportional to V(Volume)

question

What is the Volume-Temperature Law equation?
answer

 

                  V1/T1=V2/T2                     

Temperature must be in Kelvin  

                   K=°C+273                                  

question

What is the Combined Gas Law equation?
answer

P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

                                           
                                      

 

       Moles stay constant and Temperature in K(Kelvin)                     

question

What is Avogadro’s Hypothesis?
answer

When two gases are at the same temperature and pressure then equal volumes of the gases will contain equal number of particles(moles)
question

What is STP?
answer

Standard temperature and Pressure

Standard temp= 0;C or 273K

Standard Pressure= 1 atm or 760 torr

At STP the volume occupied by 1 mol of any gas is 22.4L

22.4L/mol is the standard molar volume of a gas

question

What is an ideal gas?
answer

a gas that obeys all the gas laws under all conditions
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what is a real gas?
answer

a gas that deviates from ideal behavior at high pressures and low temperatures
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What is the Ideal Gas Law equation?
answer

PV=nRT
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What is the equation for molar mass?
answer

Molar Mass= dRT/P

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

question

What is partial pressure?
answer

The pressure a gas in a mixture would exert if it were the only gas in the container.
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What is Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure?
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The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of all gases in the mixture
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What is vapor pressure?
answer

the partial pressure of the gas phase(vapor) of a substance over a sample of the liquid phase of the substance at equilibrium
question

What is mole fraction(X)?
answer

the moles of a substance in a mixture compared to the total moles in the mixture.

 

Can be expressed

 

XA= nA = PA

      nT   PT

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What is effusion?
answer

diffusion through a small hole.
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What is Graham’s Law of Effusion?
answer

the rate of; effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the density of the gas.

;

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Heavier gases effuse more what?
answer

slowly
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Lighter gases effuse more what?
answer

rapidly
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Effusion rate is also proportional to?
answer

1/Square root of molar mass
question

What is Thermochemistry?
answer

the study of the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions
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What is Thermodynamics?
answer

The study of heat, work, and energy in general and its transformations.
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What is the definition of exothermic?
answer

Chemical reactions that produce heat
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What is the definition of endothermic?
answer

Chemical reactions that absorb heat
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What is energy?
answer

The capacity to do work or transfer heat
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What is kinetic energy?
answer

The energy of motion.

;

KE=1/2m(mass)V2(velocity)

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What is potential energy?
answer

Stored energy related to an objects position or composition
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What is work?
answer

energy used to change the motion of an object?
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What is heat?
answer

Energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one
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What is temperature proportional to?
answer

heat but is not the same as heat energy.

EX: Bucket of warm water has more heat energy than a match because it has more mass

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What is a system?
answer

Object, reaction, or process you are studying.
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What are the surrondings?
answer

Everything else outiside a system
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What is the first law of thermodynamics?
answer

Energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only move from one place to another or transform into another form of energy
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What is the internal energy equation?
answer

;E=q(heat)+w(work)
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Heat and work energy flowing into the system is what?
answer

a positive quantitity in respect to the system
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Heat and work energy flowing out of the system is what?
answer

A negative quantity in respect to the system
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What is the PV work function?
answer

w=-P(pressure);V(change in volume)
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What is a state function?
answer

;any quantity whose value is independent of the pathway taken to get that quantity
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Are heat and work state functions?
answer

No because their values depend on how the system loses heat or does work.
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What is ethalpy (H)?
answer

The internal energy(E) plus Pressure X Volume

;

H=E+PV

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What is a -;H
answer

An exothermic reaction
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What is a +;H
answer

An endothermic reaction
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What is calorimetry?
answer

Measuring of heat flows for processes
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What is heat capacity?
answer

the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance or object by one degree celsius or one kelvin unit
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What is molar heat capacity?
answer

the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one mole by one degree celsius or one kelvin unit
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What is specific heat capacity?
answer

the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celsius or one kelvin unit
question

What is the calorimetry equation?
answer

q= m(mass)X Cs(specific heat)X ;T(Change in Temperature)
question

What is heat or enthalpy of fusion?
answer

The energy needed to melt a substance
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What is heat or ethalpy of vaporization?
answer

the energy needed to vaporize a substance
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What is the heat equations for the flat segments on a Heating and Cooling Curve?
answer

q=;Hfus X moles

;

q=;Hvap X moles

question

What is the heat equations for the slope segments on a Heating and Cooling Curves?
answer

q=m X Cs X ;T
question

What is evaporation?
answer

Spontaneous change from liquid to gas at any temperature
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What is boiling?
answer

Rapid formation of gas bubbles within a liquid
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What is the boiling point?
answer

point at which the liquid and gas states are at equlibrium.
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What is the normal boiling point?
answer

temperature at which liquid and gas are at equlibrium at 1 atm of pressure
question

What is the normal melting point?
answer

Temperature in which solid and liquid states are at equilibrium under 1 atm of pressure.
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What is the triple point?
answer

temperature and pressure at which gas, liquid, and solid phases of a substance are all at equilibrium.
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What is the critical point?
answer

temperature and pressure above which the distinction between gas and liquid dissapears.
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What is the critical temperature?
answer

temperature above which a substance can no longer exist as a liquid regardless of any external pressure
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What is the critical pressure?
answer

external pressure needed to keep a substance in the liquid state at the critical temperature
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What is sublimation?
answer

phase transition of a solid directly to a gas
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What is deposition?
answer

Phase transition of a gas directly to a solid
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what is condensation?
answer

Phase transition of a gas to a liquid

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