Chem 1 DSC

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Ionic bonds
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When a metal interacts with a nonmetal it can transfer one or more of its electrons to the nonmetal.
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Covalent Bonds
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when a nonmetal bonds with another nonmetal by sharing electrons instead of transferring electrons.
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Empirical formulas
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gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound.
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Molecular Formulas
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gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound.
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Structural formula
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uses lines to represent covalent bonds
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Atomic Elements
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are those that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units.
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Molecular Elements
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do not normally exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units. these elements exist as molecules.
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Molecular Compounds
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are usually composed of two or more covalently bonded nonmetals.
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Ionic Compounds
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are composed of cations (usually one type of metal) and anions (usually one or more nonmetals) bound together by ionic bonds
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Acetate
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C2 H3 02 –
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Carbonate
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CO3 2-
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Hydrogen Carbonate or Bicarbonate
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HCO3 –
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Hydroxide
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OH –
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Nitrite
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NO2 –
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Nitrate
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NO3 –
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Chromate
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CrO4 2-
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Dichromate
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Cr2 O7 2-
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Phosphate
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PO4 3-
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Hydrogen phosphate
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HPO4 2-
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Di-hydrogen phosphate
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H2 PO4 –
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Ammonium
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NH4 +
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Hypochlorite
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ClO –
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Chlorite
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ClO2 –
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Cholrate
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ClO3 –
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Perchlorate
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ClO4 –
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Permanganate
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MnO4 –
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Sulfite
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SO3 2-
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Hydrogen sulfite or bisulfite
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HSO3 –
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Sulfate
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SO4 2-
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Hydrogen Sulfate or bisulfate
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HSO4 –
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Cyanide
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CN-
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Peroxide
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O2 2-
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Oxyanions
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anions containing oxygen and another element
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Tetra
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4
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Penta
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5
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Hexa
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6
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hepta
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7
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octa
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8
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nona
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9
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deca 10
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Acids
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are molecular compounds that release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water
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Binary acids
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are composed of a hydrogen and a nonmetal
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Oxyacids
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contain hydrogen and an oxyanion
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Oxyanions ending with -ate
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+ic acid
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Oxyanions ending with -ite
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+ous acid
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formula mass
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the average mass of a molecule
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Organic Compounds
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are composed of carbon and hydrogen and a few others
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hydrocarbons
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are made of only carbon and hydrogen
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hydrocarbons containing single bonds
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are called alkanes
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hydrocarbons containing double bonds
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alkenes
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hydrocarbons containing triple bonds
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alkynes
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Hydrocarbon number 1
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meth
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Hydrocarbon number 2
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eth
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Hydrocarbon number 3
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prop
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Hydrocarbon number 4
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but
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Hydrocarbon number 5
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pent
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Hydrocarbon number 6
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hex
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Hydrocarbon number 7
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Hept
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Hydrocarbon number 8
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oct
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Hydrocarbon number 9
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non
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Hydrocarbon number
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dec
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law of conservation of mass
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in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or destroyed
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law of definite proportions
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all samples of a given compound regardless of their source or how they were prepared have the same proportions of their constituent elements
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law of multiple proportions
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when two elements (call them A and B) form two different compounds the masses of the element B that combine with 1 g of Element A can be expressed in a ratio of small whole numbers.
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Mass number
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sum of neutrons and protons
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Cations
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positive charge ions
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anions
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negative charge ions
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C-f temp
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c=(f-32)/1.8
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Exa
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10^18
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Peta
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10^15
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tera
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10^12
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giga
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10^9
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mega
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10^6
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kilo
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10^3
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deci
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10^-1
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centi
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10^-2
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milli
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10^-3
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micro
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10^-6
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nano
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10^-9
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pico
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10^-12
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femto
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10^-15
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atto
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10^-18
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1km=
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.6214 mile
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1meter=
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39.37 inches
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1 foot=
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30.48cm
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39.37 inches=
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1.094 yards
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1kg=
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2.205 lbs
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1lb=
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453.59g
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1oz=
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28.35grams
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1 liter=
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1000ml or 1000cm^3
1.057 qts
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1 gal=
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3.785 liters
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intensive property
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one that is independent of the amount of the substance
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extensive property
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depends on the amount of the substance
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Accuracy refers to
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how close the measured value is to the actual value
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precision refers to
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to how close a series of measurements are to one another and how reproducible they are
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Random error
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error that has equal probability of being to high or too low
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Systematic Error
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error that tends to be to high or two low.

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