Chapters 8,9,10

Propelled towards by motivates that activate behavior.

An object, person, or situation perceived as capable of satisfying a need.

“Why” a behavior occurs
This study of motivation is an attempt to understand this.

Physiological needs
-State of deprivation
-We must meet these to survive .

Are given rise by needs.

The only way to learn about to motivation because it can not be observed.

Activating Effects
-One of the two effects of hormones.
-Sex drive

Organizing effects
-One of the two effects of hormones.
-masculine of feminine mating patterns.

-Biological factor in hunger
-Is somewhat related to chewing and swallowing, but not completely.

Hunger pangs
-Biological factor in hunger
-are stomach contractions, but these also are incomplete explanations of eating behavior.

The body’s tendencies to maintain a steady state or to act to restore balance in response to deprivation.

Seek Stimulation
According to stimulus motives if a person is bored hey will be motivated to

Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, and Resolution.
Are the sexual response cycle according to Masters and Johnson.

Cognitive Psychologist
Are Psychologists that believe people decide whether or not they will be aggressive based on their previous experience with aggression and their interpretation of the other persons motives.

Are feeling states with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral components.

Cognitive representations
-James Lang theory
-Emotions with experience

When an individual exhibits sympathetic arousal and a concern about danger.

Male perspective
-Are what explanations for aggression that investigate hormone levels are based on.

A neonate is tested for grasp, startle, and suckling responses.

Moro Reflex
-When an infant hears a loud noise it draws up his or her legs, arches the back and starts to cry.

Hearing, Smell
The two sensory systems most likely connected to mother infant recognition in the first month.

They are able to crawl
Is when infants tend to respond to visual cues for depth.

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal operational
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.

Assimilation and Accommodation
The two basic concepts Piaget used to describe human thought.

Law of conservation
-Concrete operational children understand this law.
-that is they understand that the basic properties of substances such as weight, or volume stay the same when they change superficial properties such as shape or arrangement.

The concrete-operational stage
children at this level of moral reasoning base their judgments on the consequences of behavior.

Trust, Autonomy vs. shame and doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. inferiority.
Erikson’s four childhood goals of social development.

-Inborn need for contact comfort is as basic as the need for food
-Security in a social group is critical
Relates back to Harry Harlow’s experiment demonstrated by monkeys.

Mature behavior
One demand of authoritative and authoritarian parents have in common.

The time of transition between childhood and adulthood.

Hormones, Need for independence.
Explanation for the conflicts between adolescents and their parents.

Ego Identity versus Role Diffusion/ Adolescent Sexuality
This is the major challenge of adolescents according to Erikson.

-Reshaping one’s life to concentrate on what one finds to be important and meaningful
-A positive outlook
-Continues to self-challenge
All of the following can help people live longer.

Crystallized intelligence
Intelligence associated with intellectual attainments of a lifetime of acquired knowledge.

Decision making and complex reasoning
Your brain on Google suggests middle age and older adults alter their brain response to control.

Alzheimer’s disease
This disease is characterized by reduce levels of acetylcholine and a buildup of plaque that impairs neuro functioning.

Successful Aging
Characteristics include reshaping one’s life to concentrate on what one finds meaningful and important a positive outlook and self-challenge.

is the reasonably stable pattern of emotions, motives and behavior that distinguish one person from another

Freudian Personality Theory
Sigmund Freud was the first to develop this theory.

Drives like sex, aggression and the need for superiority
Come into conflict with laws, social rules and moral codes, according to Freud.

Sigmund Freud psychosexual stages of development.

Little girls do not feel inferior to boys
Karen Horney’s views differed from those of Sigmund Freud in that she believed _____.

are reasonable stable elements of personality that are inferred from behavior.

Emotional instability

They play down consciousness and personal choice.
A criticism of the behaviorist theory in regard to personality.

Is the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

Ability of one’s test results to stay the same from one testing to another.

Designed to diagnose psychological disorders.

Instinctual behavior is indicative of _____.