# Chapters 6 and 7 Henry Smith
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 DENSITY

 mass of a sample of matter divided by the volume of the ame sample.
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 SHAPE, GAS

 depends on the physical state of matter. ____ always fills container completely.
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 COMPRESSIBILITY

 change in volume of a sample resulting from a pressure change acing on th sample
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 THERMAL EXPANSION

 change in volume of a sample resulting from change in the temperature of the sample.
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 KINETIC ENERGY

 energy a particle has when it is in motion. KE=1/2 mv(squared)
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 POTENTIAL ENERGY

 energy a particle has as a result of attractive or repulsive forces acting on it.
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 COHESIVE ENERGY

 attractive force between particles; associated with potential energy.
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 DISRUPTIVE FORCE

 force resulting between particles; associated with kinetic energy.
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 GAS LAW

 mathematical relationship that describes behavior of gasses as they are mixed, subjected to pressure or temperature change, or allowed to diffuse.
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 STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

 pressure needed to support a 760 mm column of mercury in a barometer tube.
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 TORR

 pressure needed to support a 1 mm column of mercury in a barometer tube
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 BOYLE’S GAS LAW; INVERSE; DECREASE

 gas law that describes pressure and volume behavior of gasses kept at constant temperature. PV=K Presuure and volume have a/an ___________ relationship.(increase pressure and then _________ volume)
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 ABSOLUTE ZERO

 temperature at which all particle motion stops; a value of 0 on Kelvin scale.
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 CHARLE’S LAW;proportional; increases

 gas law that describes temperature and volume behavior of gasses kept at constant pressure. V=k’T. Temperature and volume are ____________, increasung one __________ the other as long as the PRESSURE IS CONTANT.
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 COMBINED GAS LAW

 gas law that describes pressure, volume and temperature behavior of gasses. PV/T=K. Combines elements of Boyle’s and Charle’s Laws.
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 equal volume of gasses measured at the same temperature nad pressure contain equal number of molecules. The MASS would not be the same since each gas has a different molecular weight.
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 STANDARD CONDITIONS (STP)

 specific temperature and pressure measurements chosen by chemists for gas measurements.
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 STP=0 degrees celcius (273 K); 1.00 atm

 __________ standard temperature;__________ standard pressure
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 IDEAL GAS LAW

 gas law that relates the pressure, volume temperature, and number of moles in a gas sample.PV=nRT (WITH pressure, volume, number of moles in the gas sample, universal gas constant and temperature respectively).
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 UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT

 constant that relates pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas in the ideal gas law.
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 DALTON’S LAW

 the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
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 PARTIAL PRESSURE

 the pressure an individual gas of a mixture would exert if it were in a container alone at the same temperature as the mixture.
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 GRAHAM’S LAW

 relates rates of effusion or diffussion of two gasses to the masses of the molecules of the two gasses.
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 EFFUSION

 process in which a gas escapes from a container through a small hole.
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 DIFFUSSION

 process that causes gases to spontaneously intermingle when they are brought together.
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 EVAPORATION.

 a change from liquid to gas state at temperatures below the boiling point.
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 EVAPORATION AND VAPORIZATION

 are endothermic reactions that are the result of molecules leaving the surface of the liquid.
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 CONDENSATION

 is an exothermic process in which gas or vapor is changed into a liquid or solid state.
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 EQUILIBRIUM

 occurs when there are equal rates of evaporation and condensation resulting in the number of molecules in the vapor state remaining constant.
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 VAPOR PRESSURE

 is the pressure exerted by vapor that is in equilibrium with its liquid.
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 BOILING POINT

 temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the prevailing atmospheric pressure resulting in a change to a gas state.
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 NORMAL OR STANDARD BOILING POINT; LOWER

 is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to 1 standard atm (760 torr). At higher elevations where atmos[heric presure is lower, the boiling point is also _______.
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 SUBLIMATION

 endothermic process in which a solid is changed directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid.
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 MELTING POINT

 is the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid; the solid and liquid has the same vapor pressure.
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 DECOMPOSITION

 change in chemical composition that can result from heating. Ex. Cotton and paper char (decompose) rather than melt.
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 STATES OF MATTER AND ENERGY

 energy is absorbed or released when matter is changed in temperature or changed from one state to another.
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 SPECIFIC HEAT

 refers to the heat energy required to produce heat energy or “heat of fusion” if the change involves a change of state of matter.
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 SOLUTION

 homogenous mixture of two or more substances in which the components are present as atoms, molecules, or ions.
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 SOLVENT

 substance present in a solution in the largest amount.
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 SOLUTE

 one or more substances present in a solution in amounts less than that of a solvent.
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 DISSOLVING

 process of solution formation when one or more solutes are dispersed in a solvent to form a homogenous mixture.
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 SOLUBLE SUBSTANCE

 substance that dissolves to a significant extent in a solvent.
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 INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCE

 substance does not dissolve to a significant extent in a solvent.
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 IMMIRSCIBLE

 liquids that are insoluble to each other.
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 SOLUBILITY

 maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specific amount of solvent under specific conditions of temperature and pressure.
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 SATURATED SOLUTION

 solution containing the maximum amount possible of dissolved solute in a stable situation under the prevailing conditions of temperature and pressure.
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 SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION

 unstable solution that contains an amount of solute temperature and pressure.
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 HYDRATED ION

 ion in a solution that is surrounded by water molecules.
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 SOLUTION PROCESS

 process of solvent molecules attracting the solute particles away from the solute crystal lattice.
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 CONCENTRATION

 relationship between amount of solute and specific amount of solution in which it is contained.
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 MOLARITY

 solution concentraion expressed in terms o the number of moles of solute/liters of solution. M=moles of solute/liters of solution.
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 PERCENT

 solution concentration expressing amount of solute in 100 parts of solution.
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 WEIGHT/WEIGHT PERCENT

 concentration expressing mass of solute contained in 100 mass units of solution.
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 WEIGHT/VOLUME PERCENT

 concentration expressing grams of solute contained in 100 ml of solution.
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 ELECTROLYTE

 solute that when dissolved in water forms a solution that conducts electricity.
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 NONELECTROLYTE

 solute that when dissolved in water forms a solution that does NOT conduct electricity.
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 COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY

 solution property that depends only on the concentration of solute particles in solution. Ex. boiling point, vapor point, freezing point
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 OSMOTIC PRESSURE

 hydrostatic pressure required to prevent the net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane membrane into a solution.
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 OSMOSIS

 process in which solvent flows through a semipermeable membrane into a solution
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 COLLOID

 homogenous mixture of two or more substances in which the dispersed substances are present as larger particles than are found in solutions.
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 DISPERSING MEDIUM

 substance present in a colloidal dispersion in the largest amount.
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 DISPERSED PHASE

 substance present in a colloidal dispersion amounts less than the amount of the dispersing medium.
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 TYNDALL EFFECT