Chapters 6 and 7

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DENSITY
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mass of a sample of matter divided by the volume of the ame sample.
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SHAPE, GAS
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depends on the physical state of matter. ____ always fills container completely.
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COMPRESSIBILITY
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change in volume of a sample resulting from a pressure change acing on th sample
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THERMAL EXPANSION
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change in volume of a sample resulting from change in the temperature of the sample.
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KINETIC ENERGY
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energy a particle has when it is in motion. KE=1/2 mv(squared)
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POTENTIAL ENERGY
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energy a particle has as a result of attractive or repulsive forces acting on it.
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COHESIVE ENERGY
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attractive force between particles; associated with potential energy.
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DISRUPTIVE FORCE
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force resulting between particles; associated with kinetic energy.
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GAS LAW
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mathematical relationship that describes behavior of gasses as they are mixed, subjected to pressure or temperature change, or allowed to diffuse.
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STANDARD ATMOSPHERE
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pressure needed to support a 760 mm column of mercury in a barometer tube.
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TORR
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pressure needed to support a 1 mm column of mercury in a barometer tube
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BOYLE’S GAS LAW; INVERSE; DECREASE
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gas law that describes pressure and volume behavior of gasses kept at constant temperature. PV=K Presuure and volume have a/an ___________ relationship.(increase pressure and then _________ volume)
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ABSOLUTE ZERO
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temperature at which all particle motion stops; a value of 0 on Kelvin scale.
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CHARLE’S LAW;proportional; increases
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gas law that describes temperature and volume behavior of gasses kept at constant pressure. V=k’T. Temperature and volume are ____________, increasung one __________ the other as long as the PRESSURE IS CONTANT.
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COMBINED GAS LAW
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gas law that describes pressure, volume and temperature behavior of gasses. PV/T=K. Combines elements of Boyle’s and Charle’s Laws.
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AVOGADRO’S LAW
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equal volume of gasses measured at the same temperature nad pressure contain equal number of molecules. The MASS would not be the same since each gas has a different molecular weight.
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STANDARD CONDITIONS (STP)
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specific temperature and pressure measurements chosen by chemists for gas measurements.
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STP=0 degrees celcius (273 K);
1.00 atm
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__________ standard temperature;
__________ standard pressure
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IDEAL GAS LAW
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gas law that relates the pressure, volume temperature, and number of moles in a gas sample.
PV=nRT (WITH pressure, volume, number of moles in the gas sample, universal gas constant and temperature respectively).
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UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT
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constant that relates pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas in the ideal gas law.
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DALTON’S LAW
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the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
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PARTIAL PRESSURE
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the pressure an individual gas of a mixture would exert if it were in a container alone at the same temperature as the mixture.
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GRAHAM’S LAW
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relates rates of effusion or diffussion of two gasses to the masses of the molecules of the two gasses.
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EFFUSION
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process in which a gas escapes from a container through a small hole.
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DIFFUSSION
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process that causes gases to spontaneously intermingle when they are brought together.
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EVAPORATION.
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a change from liquid to gas state at temperatures below the boiling point.
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EVAPORATION AND VAPORIZATION
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are endothermic reactions that are the result of molecules leaving the surface of the liquid.
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CONDENSATION
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is an exothermic process in which gas or vapor is changed into a liquid or solid state.
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EQUILIBRIUM
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occurs when there are equal rates of evaporation and condensation resulting in the number of molecules in the vapor state remaining constant.
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VAPOR PRESSURE
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is the pressure exerted by vapor that is in equilibrium with its liquid.
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BOILING POINT
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temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the prevailing atmospheric pressure resulting in a change to a gas state.
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NORMAL OR STANDARD BOILING POINT; LOWER
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is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to 1 standard atm (760 torr). At higher elevations where atmos[heric presure is lower, the boiling point is also _______.
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SUBLIMATION
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endothermic process in which a solid is changed directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid.
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MELTING POINT
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is the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid; the solid and liquid has the same vapor pressure.
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DECOMPOSITION
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change in chemical composition that can result from heating. Ex. Cotton and paper char (decompose) rather than melt.
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STATES OF MATTER AND ENERGY
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energy is absorbed or released when matter is changed in temperature or changed from one state to another.
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SPECIFIC HEAT
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refers to the heat energy required to produce heat energy or “heat of fusion” if the change involves a change of state of matter.
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SOLUTION
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homogenous mixture of two or more substances in which the components are present as atoms, molecules, or ions.
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SOLVENT
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substance present in a solution in the largest amount.
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SOLUTE
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one or more substances present in a solution in amounts less than that of a solvent.
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DISSOLVING
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process of solution formation when one or more solutes are dispersed in a solvent to form a homogenous mixture.
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SOLUBLE SUBSTANCE
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substance that dissolves to a significant extent in a solvent.
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INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCE
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substance does not dissolve to a significant extent in a solvent.
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IMMIRSCIBLE
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liquids that are insoluble to each other.
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SOLUBILITY
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maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specific amount of solvent under specific conditions of temperature and pressure.
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SATURATED SOLUTION
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solution containing the maximum amount possible of dissolved solute in a stable situation under the prevailing conditions of temperature and pressure.
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SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION
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unstable solution that contains an amount of solute temperature and pressure.
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HYDRATED ION
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ion in a solution that is surrounded by water molecules.
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SOLUTION PROCESS
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process of solvent molecules attracting the solute particles away from the solute crystal lattice.
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CONCENTRATION
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relationship between amount of solute and specific amount of solution in which it is contained.
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MOLARITY
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solution concentraion expressed in terms o the number of moles of solute/liters of solution. M=moles of solute/liters of solution.
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PERCENT
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solution concentration expressing amount of solute in 100 parts of solution.
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WEIGHT/WEIGHT PERCENT
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concentration expressing mass of solute contained in 100 mass units of solution.
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WEIGHT/VOLUME PERCENT
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concentration expressing grams of solute contained in 100 ml of solution.
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ELECTROLYTE
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solute that when dissolved in water forms a solution that conducts electricity.
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NONELECTROLYTE
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solute that when dissolved in water forms a solution that does NOT conduct electricity.
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COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY
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solution property that depends only on the concentration of solute particles in solution. Ex. boiling point, vapor point, freezing point
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OSMOTIC PRESSURE
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hydrostatic pressure required to prevent the net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane membrane into a solution.
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OSMOSIS
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process in which solvent flows through a semipermeable membrane into a solution
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COLLOID
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homogenous mixture of two or more substances in which the dispersed substances are present as larger particles than are found in solutions.
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DISPERSING MEDIUM
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substance present in a colloidal dispersion in the largest amount.
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DISPERSED PHASE
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substance present in a colloidal dispersion amounts less than the amount of the dispersing medium.
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TYNDALL EFFECT
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property of colloids in which the path of a beam of light through the colloid is visible because the light is scattered.
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EMULSIFYING AGENT OR STABILIZING AGENT
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substance added to some colloidst to prevent coalescing and setting. This is usually a coating agent to keep droplets separated and suspended in liquid.

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