chapters 16-19

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The Social Gospel
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Called for equalization of wealth and power.
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Which statement about the theory of Social Darwinism is FALSE?
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The theory argued that the “deserving poor” only included children.
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The Great Railroad Strike of 1877:
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was evidence of worker solidarity and the close ties between industry and the Republican Party.
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Which statement about the Haymarket Affair is FALSE?
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The Knights of Labor was directly responsible for the violence that took place at Haymarket.
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William M. Tweed was a(n):
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political boss who, although corrupt, provided important services to New Yorkers.
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In the nineteenth century, pools, trusts, and mergers were:
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ways that manufacturers sought to control the marketplace.
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In 1883, ____________ divided the nation into the four time zones still used today.
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the major railroad companies
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During the second industrial revolution, the courts:
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tended to favor the interests of industry over those of labor.
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Which of the following statements best summarizes the reasons for the tripling of railroad track miles in the United States between 1860 and 1890?
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Private investment and massive grants of land and money by federal, state, and local governments spurred the building.
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The Knights of Labor:
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was an inclusive organization that advocated for a vast array of reforms.
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One significant economic impact of the second industrial revolution was:
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frequent and prolonged economic depressions.
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The second industrial revolution was marked by:
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the acceleration of factory production and increased activity in the mining and railroad industries.
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The Haymarket Affair:
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was provoked by the 1886 bombing at a Chicago labor rally.
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By 1890, the majority of Americans:
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worked for wages
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The theory of Social Darwinism argued that:
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the theory of evolution applied to humans, thus explaining why some were rich and some were poor.
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Which statement about labor and the law is FALSE?
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Workers generally welcomed the Court’s decisions on industry.
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The American working class:
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lived in desperate conditions.
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In “How the Other Half Lives”, Jacob Riis:
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focused on the wretched conditions of New York City slums.
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Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller:
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built up giant corporations that dominated their respective markets.
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The ________________ made possible the second industrial revolution in America.
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railroads
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One of the reasons that the Great Strike of 1877 was important is that:
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it underscored the tensions produced by the rapid industrialization of the time.
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The Supreme Court in Lochner v. New York:
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voided a state law establishing that bakers could work a maximum of sixty hours per week.
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All of the following factors contributed to explosive economic growth during the Gilded Age EXCEPT:
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low tariffs.
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Thomas Edison:
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invented, among other things, a system for generating and distributing electricity.
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For workers, the second industrial revolution meant all of the following EXCEPT:
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a decrease in child labor.
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The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882:
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prohibited any Chinese from entering the United States.
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In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court:
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ruled that “separate but equal” accommodations were constitutional.
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How did the Civil War come to be remembered by the 1890s as the white North and South moved toward reconciliation?
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As a tragic family quarrel among white Americans, in which blacks played no significant part.
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During the “Age of Empire,” American racial attitudes:
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had a global impact.
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Which statement about the disenfranchisement of blacks in the South is FALSE?
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The Supreme Court upheld the grandfather clause.
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In his Atlanta speech of 1895, Booker T. Washington:
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encouraged blacks to adjust to segregation.
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In the South, the Redeemers:
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imposed a new racial order.
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The Philippine War:
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was far longer and bloodier than the Spanish-American War.
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Twenty years after the end of Reconstruction, African-Americans in the South:
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suffered the most from the region’s poor conditions.
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After the 1890s, American expansionism:
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was partly fueled by the need to stimulate American exports.
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Journalists who worked for newspapers like William Randolph Hearst’s “New York Journal,” which sensationalized events to sell papers, were called:
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yellow journalists.
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The “white man’s burden”:
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comes from a poem by Rudyard Kipling.
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Founded in 1886, the American Federation of Labor:
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restricted membership to only skilled workers.
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Americans have referred to the 1890s as the women’s era because:
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women’s economic opportunities and roles in public life expanded.
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The Spanish-American War:
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brought the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico under U.S. control.
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What explains the appeal of the Lost Cause mythology for Southern whites in the late nineteenth century?
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It helped southern whites cope with defeat but preserve white supremacy.
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In 1900, most of the nearly 5 million women who worked for wages worked in:
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the garment industry and as domestic laborers.
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By the end of the nineteenth century, African-American men in the South:
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were forced out of politics and passed leadership to female African-American activists.
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Plessy v. Ferguson:
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sanctioned racial segregation.
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Newspaper and magazine writers who exposed the ills of industrial and urban life, fueling the Progressive movement, were known as:
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muckrakers.
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All of the following statements about Urban Progressives are true EXCEPT:
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they worked with political machines.
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Jane Addams:
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advocated for the working poor.
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Progressive governor of Wisconsin, Robert La Follette, instituted all of the following reforms EXCEPT:
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promising lower taxes and less government interference.
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During the Progressive era:
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new immigration from southern and eastern Europe reached its peak.
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All of the following measures expanded democracy during the Progressive era EXCEPT:
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literacy tests and residency requirements.
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Margaret Sanger was a:
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birth-control advocate.
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Most new immigrants who arrived during the early years of the twentieth century:
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lived in close-knit communities.
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President Theodore Roosevelt:
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believed the president should be an honest broker in labor disputes.
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Maternalist reform:
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was supported by both feminists and more traditional women.
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Which statement about the American Federation of Labor in the early twentieth century is FALSE?
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The AFL proposed an overthrow of the capitalist system.
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A cause not widely championed by Progressives was:
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civil rights for blacks.
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What brought about a new wave of sympathy for the plight of women in the garment industry in Lawrence, Massachusetts?
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The appearance of malnourished children evacuated from Lawrence shocked the public.
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The program that sought to streamline production and boost profits by systematically controlling costs and work practices was called:
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scientific management.
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All of the following statements about Jane Addams and Hull House are true EXCEPT:
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She believed that immigrant women primarily needed union protection.
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In the early twentieth century, the Socialist Party advocated for all of the following EXCEPT:
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national health insurance.
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The Progressive movement drew its strength from:
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middle-class reformers.
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The writer whose work encouraged the passage of the Meat Inspection Act was:
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Upton Sinclair.
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During the Progressive era;
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growing numbers of native-born white women worked in offices.
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The new concepts of “living wage” and the “American standard of living”:
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allowed for criticism of the inequalities of wealth and power.
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The term “Fordism”:
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describes an economic system based on mass production and mass consumption.
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Why did workers experience the introduction of scientific management as a loss of freedom?
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Skilled workers under scientific management had to obey very detailed instructions.
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During the Progressive era
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urban development highlighted social inequalities.
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The Sixteenth Amendment:
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authorized Congress to implement a graduated income tax.
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A worker who crossed a picket line during a strike was called a:
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scab
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The work “Progressivism” came into common use around 1910:
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as a way of describing a loosely defined political movement.
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Which of the following social groups was NOT heavily involved in the Progressive movement?
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Unskilled immigrant workers.
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In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court:
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argued that women were too weak to work long hours.
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The Industrial Workers of the World:
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advocated a workers’ revolution.
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The Triangle Shirtwaist fire:
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brought in its wake much-needed safety legislation.
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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Progressive reformers?
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Progressives pursued radical alternatives to capitalism.
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The battle for free speech among workers in the early twentieth century:
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was led by the Industrial Workers of the World.
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All of the following statements about mass consumption in the early twentieth century are true EXCEPT:
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southerners fully participated in the mass-consumption society.
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Which statement about the textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1912 is FALSE?
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The strikers asked the American Federation of Labor for assistance.

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