Chapters 1 – 5 Quizzes Essay

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political efficacy
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belief that citizens can affect what government does
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citizenship
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informed and active membership in a political community
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government
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formal institutions through which a land and its people are ruled
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politics
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the conflicts and struggles over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments
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Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
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outlawed the entry of Chinese laborers to the United States, a restriction that was not reversed until 1943
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three important political values in American politics
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liberty, equality, and democracy
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Liberty
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personal and economic freedom (linked to limited government)
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Equality
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equality of opportunity, the notion that each person should be given a fair chance to use his or her talents to reach their fullest potential
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Democracy
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power ultimately comes from the people (popular sovereignty)
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power
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having influence over the leadership, structure, and policies of government
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pluralism
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theory that all interests should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation
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majority rule, minority rights
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the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority
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Which of the followings statements about trust in government is accurate?
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Public trust in government in the United States dipped to historically low levels during the fight over the Affordable Care Act.
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Political equality means that each citizen
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has one, and only one, vote.
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Which of the following wanted to promote political participation for the middle classes?
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bourgeoisie
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Political efficacy is the
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belief that citizens can affect government.
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A belief in equality of results is
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not a part of the U.S. political culture.
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Compared to Europeans, Americans are ____ supportive of government actions to ensure economic equality.
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less
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Because they understand how politics affects their lives, knowledgeable citizens tend to
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be more engaged in politics.
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The 1896 Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson was most directly related to the debate over equality of
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access to public institutions.
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Personal and economic freedom are both definitions of
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liberty
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Totalitarianism entails government having unlimited political
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power.
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A government is made up of the
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formal institutions that rule a people.
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Who gets what, when, and how is a definition of
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politics
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The practice of direct democracy includes which of the following?
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ballot referenda
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What was revealed in the documents leaked by Edward Snowden?
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The National Security Agency had been secretly collecting information on Americans for years.
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Liberty, democracy, and ____ are the United States’ core political values.
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equality
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Over the last century, America’s population has become ____ elderly and ____ young since the Founding.
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more; less
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Which of the following can be said to have characterized American politics for much of the past half-century?
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a pervasive sense of apathy and cynicism
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Which of the following was an effect of the National Origins quota system?
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The foreign-born population of the United States reached an all-time low by 1970.
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Representatives make decisions about public policy in a(n) ____ democracy.
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representative
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The people are sovereign in a(n)
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democracy
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The Articles of Confederation
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America’s first written constitution; served as the basis for America’s national government until 1789
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Shays’s Rebellion
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to prevent the court from repossessing debt-ridden lands held by poor farmers
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Constitutional Convention of 1787
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he new Constitution embodied leading political theories of the time regarding liberty, equality, and democracy.
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Virginia Plan
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states would have delegates proportionate to population or wealt
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New Jersey Plan
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each state would have equal representation
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Connecticut Compromise
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equal representation in the Senate, proportional in the House of Representatives
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Three-Fifths Compromise
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seats in the House of Representatives would be apportioned according to a “population” in which five slaves would count as three free persons
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checks and balances
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mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches; major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments
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electoral college
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the electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president
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Bill of Rights
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the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people
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expressed powers
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specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
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elastic clause
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Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution (also known as the necessary and proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out
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supremacy clause
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Article VI of the Constitution, which states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
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Which of the following statements about the Declaration of Independence is accurate?
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It specifically identified and focused on grievances, aspirations, and principles that might unify the various colonial groups.
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Proponents of the idea of the “living” Constitution would likely support the concept of
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judicial review.
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The executive leader or presiding officer specified by the Articles of Confederation
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did not exist; the Articles specified no executive leader.
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The concept of the “mixed regime,” so called by theorists such as Montesquieu and incorporated into the Constitution, meant that each branch of government
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had a distinct constituency.
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Income taxes
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were not in existence in the mid-eighteenth century.
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Antifederalists’ concerns about the Constitution
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included a concern that the Constitution did not specifically enumerate protected civil liberties.
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The Bill of Rights mollified concerns about
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an overly powerful central government.
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Articles of Confederation
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preceded the U.S. Constitution.
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The elastic clause (supremacy clause)
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gives Congress the ability to pass laws necessary to carry out its expressed powers.
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The total boycott of all British goods in the colonies came immediately after which event?
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creation of the First Continental Congress
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Counting slaves as ____ for the purposes of census did not allow slaves to ____.
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three-fifths of a person; vote
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In general, the Federalists’ future vision of the United States
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triumphed over the Antifederalist vision.
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As a political value, individual liberty
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was preeminent for the Constitution’s authors.
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The process of amending the Constitution is ____, leading to a ____ proportion of proposed amendments succeeding.
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difficult; very small
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The core component of the New Jersey Plan was that
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each state would be equally represented in the new regime regardless of that state’s population.
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Which of the following structural aspects was established for the legislature by the Constitution?
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The Senate was given the power to approve presidential appointments.
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Under the Great Compromise, the Senate
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was an arena where large and small states would compete on equal footing.
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The New England-based merchants and southern planters
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organized together in opposition to taxes imposed by the Stamp and Sugar Acts.
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One key demonstration of the weakness of the Articles of Confederation was
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the size and duration of Shays’s Rebellion.
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Which of the following was established in the Tenth Amendment?
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Powers not specifically granted by the Constitution to the federal government were reserved to the states or to the people.
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Tenth Amendment (reserved powers)
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The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people
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Full Faith and Credit Clause
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(comity clause) provision from Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state
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Dual federalism (layer-cake federalism)
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constitutional interpretation that gave the federal government exclusive control over some issues and states exclusive control over others.
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McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
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The Supreme Court ruled that the U.S. Congress had, through its implied powers, the legal right to charter a national bank. && in this case, the U.S. Supreme Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers.
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Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
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The Supreme Court established the supremacy of the national government in all matters affecting interstate commerce. && gave the national government significant new authority to regulate interstate commerce.
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Grants-in-aid
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funds provided by the federal government to a state or local government for a specific purpose. Formula Grants && Categorical Grants > Project Grants
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Cooperative federalism (marble cake federalism)
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model in which the various levels of government work together to solve policy problems, often with the federal government providing some portion of the funding, which is spent by the states or localities
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unfunded mandates
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rules forcing states to spend their own money to comply with federal law.
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devolution
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transferring responsibility from the federal government to state or local governments.
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Block grants
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federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent
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privileges and immunities clause
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provision, from Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges
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commerce clause
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Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes”; this clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy
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New Federalism
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attempts by presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants
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Most of the rules and regulations Americans face in their daily lives are set by
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state and local governments.
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The implied powers of the necessary and proper clause allow
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the national government to interpret its delegated powers expansively.
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“Regulations or new conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the national government” is the definition of
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unfunded mandates
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In what way did the federal government attempt to combat state opposition to national policies for a time in the 1960s?
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bypassing states altogether by making federal grants directly to local governments
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What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?
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to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals
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Under the traditional system of dual federalism, the national government’s primary functional role was
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the assistance of the nation’s commerce.
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The commerce clause of Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution affords Congress broad regulatory power over what?
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interstate commerce
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The Supreme Court ruling in United States v. Lopez is important because
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it was the first time since the New Deal that the Supreme Court limited the power of Congress under the commerce clause.
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New Federalism was generally characterized by
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granting state and local governments greater control of nationally funded programs.
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In a federal system, power is distributed
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between the state and national governments.
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Which of the following statements about the evolution of federalism under the George W. Bush administration is accurate?
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The Bush administration oversaw a massive increase in federal authority over public education.
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Which of the following is an example of a concurrent power?
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the power of both the national and state governments to charter banks and corporations
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Which of the following would best exemplify a characteristic of a unitary system of government?
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The national government selects the textbooks and curriculum for all schools.
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The power to declare war is an example of which type of power?
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expressed
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Specific powers provided to the national government in the U.S. Constitution are called __________ powers.
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expressed
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What type of situation in American federalism has often resulted in the act of preemption?
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A state action is found to be inconsistent with a federal requirement.
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Why has the controversy over same-sex marriage been so closely linked to the full faith and credit clause?
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It raises the issue of whether one state will recognize legal same-sex unions made in another state.
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Block grants consist of federal aid to state or local governments that is
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to be spent within a specified policy area, though without the narrow regulations of categorical grants.
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Civil liberties
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protections from improper government action
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The Bill of Rights
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made up of provisions that protect citizens from improper government action.
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Lemon v. Kurtzmann
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determined that government aid to religious schools would be accepted as constitutional if (1) it had a secular purpose, (2) its effect was neither to advance nor to inhibit religion, and (3) it did not entangle government and religious institutions in each other’s affairs.
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free exercise clause
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protects the right to believe and to practice whatever religion one chooses
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McDonald v. Chicago
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The Court declared that the right to keep and bear arms was protected from state as well as federal action.
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due process of law
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The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth amendments, taken together
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protects against unreasonable searches and seizures
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Fourth Amendment
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requires a grand jury for most crimes, protects against double jeopardy, and provides that you cannot be forced to testify against yourself. && the takings clause, which extends to each citizen a protection against the “taking” of private property “without just compensation.”
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Fifth Amendment
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Miranda v. Arizona
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advanced the civil liberties of accused persons not only by expanding the scope of the Fifth Amendment clause covering coerced confessions and self-incrimination but also by confirming the right to counsel, a provision of the Sixth Amendment.
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requires a speedy trial and the right to witnesses and counsel. Prohibits excessive fines/bails
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Sixth Amendment.
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prohibits cruel and unusual punishment
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Eighth Amendment
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Griswold v. Connecticut
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the Supreme Court found a right of privacy in a combination of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth amendments to the Constitution && right was confirmed and extended in 1973 in the case of Roe v. Wade.
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Establishment clause
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Freedom from the state imposing any particular religion
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Free exercise clause
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Freedom to practice religion of choice without state interference
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Free exercise clause & Establishment clause
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First Ammendment
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Right to Bear Arms
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Second Ammendment
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Right to Privacy
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interpreted in the Fourth Amendment, facilitated by the Ninth Amendment
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exclusionary rule
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the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment
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Which of the following is established by the Fifth Amendment?
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The courts cannot hold trials for serious offenses without provision for a grand jury.
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The Supreme Court ruled in Lawrence v. Texas that the right to privacy
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extends to gay and lesbian citizens.
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Which of the following statements about the death penalty is accurate?
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The United States is the only Western nation that still executes criminals.
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Due process of law is
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the right of every citizen against arbitrary government action.
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The Fifth Amendment protects against
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double jeopardy.
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Which of the following is true of the Supreme Court’s treatment of student speech?
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It has allowed conditional restrictions on student free speech depending on the content of the speech.
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Which of the following is a component of the Lemon test?
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determining whether government involvement advances a particular religion
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Speech that is accompanied by conduct and that can be regulated by the government to preserve public order is called
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speech plus.
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The idea of the separation of church and state is most closely associated with the
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establishment clause.
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Fighting words fall outside constitutional protection because they
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directly incite violence.
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The Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade was based on the
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right to privacy.
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The exclusionary rule is illustrated by which Supreme Court case?
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Mapp v. Ohio
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The most dramatic restraint imposed on police by the Bill of Rights, which can free those people who are known to have committed the crime of which they have been accused, is the
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exclusionary rule.
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The free exercise clause protects
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the right to believe in and practice one’s religion of choice.
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Civil liberties are
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limitations on government action.
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In the important 1945 case concerning eminent domain, the Supreme Court essentially ruled that
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the “public interest” used to justify eminent domain can mean anything a legislature wants it to mean.
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____ liberties place restraints on how government is supposed to act, while ____ liberties limit what the government has the power to do.
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Procedural; substantive
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Eminent domain is the power of government to
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take private property for public use.
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The right of the people “to keep and bear Arms” is based on
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participation in state militias.
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In the 2006 case of United States v. Grubbs, the Supreme Court ruled that
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police could conduct searches using such “anticipatory warrants.”
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abolished slavery
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Thirteenth Amendment
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it guaranteed equal protection and due process
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Fourteenth Amendment
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it guaranteed voting rights for African American men
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Fifteenth Amendment
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Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
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Determined separate but equal in schooling inherently unequal because predicated on the idea of racial superiority (over turns Plessy)
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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
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outlawed job discrimination by all private and public employers—including governmental agencies—employing more than fifteen workers.
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Plessy v. Ferguson (1896
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upheld the concept of separate but equal.
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Public accommodations could no longer be inferior or segregated. Title VI of the act strengthened the hand of the executive branch in dealing with segregated schools. Title VII of the act created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and allowed for the Justice Department to enforce fair-employment practices.
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Bans literacy tests
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civil rights
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obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens
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affirmative action
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government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of those groups with access to educational and employment opportunities
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Mendez v. Westminster (1947) was significant because
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the decision to overturn school segregation of Mexican American students in California served as a precursor to Brown v. Board of Education.
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The Supreme Court’s decisions on school desegregation policies since 1991 generally suggest that the Court will
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be willing to end desegregation plans even when predominantly minority schools continue to lag significantly behind white suburban schools.
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________ began the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-1956.
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Rosa Parks
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What does the term Jim Crow mean?
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the system of racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction
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Which amendments to the U.S. Constitution seemed to offer African Americans the most hope for achieving full citizenship rights in the United States?
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the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments
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What was the purpose of California’s Proposition 187?
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It barred unauthorized immigrants from receiving most public services.
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What was the Supreme Court’s response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875?
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The justices declared the act unconstitutional because it protected against acts of private discrimination, not state discrimination.
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Which area was NOT covered by the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
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military service
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In 1870, Congress passed a law forbidding ________ from becoming U.S. citizens.
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the Chinese
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The constitutional authority of Congress to forbid discrimination in employment is based on the
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power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
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The right to vote was strengthened in 1975 when members of Congress
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made literacy tests illegal and mandated bilingual ballots or other assistance for non-English-speaking Americans
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The Civil Rights Act of 1875 attempted to
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protect African Americans from discrimination in public accommodations such as hotels and theaters.
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The rights of disabled individuals to both access public businesses and not be discriminated against in employment are guaranteed by
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the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
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United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898) is an important case because the justices declared that
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anyone born in the United States was entitled to be a citizen.
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The Compromise of 1877
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resulted in the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. & resulted in the Jim Crow system.
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The Supreme Court justices began to change their position on racial discrimination in the ________.
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1930s
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After World War II, which government institution first began drawing attention to the problem of racism in America?
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the White House
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What best explains the increased attention the federal government paid to the problem of racial discrimination during the 1940s?
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Northern migration of African Americans increased their voting strength.

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