chapter one MB

question

Complete this analogy: Atoms are to molecules as __________.
answer

tissues are to organs
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Which level of organization is one step above cells?
answer

Tissues
question

You are talking with a friend about why sports teams win more often when playing home games. Your friend says, \”I have a theory about that.\” How would a proper scientist say this phrase?
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\”I have a hypothesis about that.\”
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Which of these statements about scientific theories is true?
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Theories can be disproven by new evidence.
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One night, while you’re studying hard for a biology test, your dog begins barking at you. You wonder why she is barking, but then you remember that you haven’t fed her tonight. You think, \”Maybe she’s hungry.\” If you are following the scientific method, what should you do next?
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Make a prediction.
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What is the purpose of a control group in an experiment?
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to provide a standard for comparison
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Which of these is an example of maintaining a constant internal environment?
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sweating in the sun
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Your physics professor tells the class that she has recently disproven the theory of gravity. She claims that gravity has nothing to do with mass and is really a function of speed. Objects that are not moving relative to each other are attracted, but objects that are moving parallel to each other actually repel one another. To demonstrate, she holds a paper airplane level in her hand and releases it. It falls toward the ground. She then throws the airplane horizontally and the airplane turns upward, flying away from the ground. Once the airplane is flying directly upward, it rapidly stops and begins to fall. What do you, as a good scientist, do next?
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I figure out a different hypothesis for why the plane flew upward.
question

How do the terms \”natural selection\” and \”evolution\” compare?
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Natural selection is a force that causes evolution.
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How does the process of evolution take place?
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Evolution results from natural selection preserving mutations that result in adaptations of a species to the environment, which help that species to survive and reproduce.
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How are DNA, chromosomes, and genes related?
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Genes are segments of DNA that direct the formation of a specific characteristic. All of the DNA in an organism makes up the chromosomes
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Which of the following statements correctly summarizes the effects of mutation?
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The process of mutation creates both helpful and harmful genetic variations in a species.
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Evolution is often described as \”survival of the fittest.\” How would a biologist best measure fitness from the perspective of evolution?
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Fitness is best measured by the number of offspring. The more offspring an organism has that survive to reproduce, the more its genes will be represented in the next generation and beyond.
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If two populations of the same species live in different environments for a long time, what will likely occur?
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Evolution can result in enough differences between the populations that they can’t interbreed.
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Which of the following is an example of a neutral mutation?
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a child born with blond hair to two brown-haired parents
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Which of these scenarios is the best example of natural selection?
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A population of moths has a mottled gray and black camouflage to hide from birds. This camouflage matches the color of the tree bark in the area. An industrial complex is built nearby and pollution darkens the tree bark. After several generations, the moths are almost completely black.
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Which of these is a characteristic of all life?
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growing
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Which of the following is a characteristic of life shown by a computer?
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It responds to stimuli.
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In what way are energy and nutrients similar?
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They both can be eaten.
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Which of these is a characteristic of life possessed by viruses?
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They reproduce
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What is the eventual fate of all energy acquired by life?
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It becomes heat.
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Which of the following is based on a scientific understanding?
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Schizophrenia is caused by a chemical disorder in the brain.
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Where does the energy acquired by heterotrophs originate?
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the Sun
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You are a NASA scientist and have discovered an organism in outer space that stores its genetic material in the cytoplasm rather than in a nucleus and cannot perform photosynthesis. Given these characteristics, how might you classify this organism?
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prokaryote
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To what domain do you belong?
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Eukarya
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A scientist examines an organism and finds that it is eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multi-cellular, and it absorbs food molecules. Which kingdom will she likely place the organism in?
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Fungi
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Which of the following is a valid comparison between domains?
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Bacteria and Archaea are both mostly unicellular.
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How do autotrophs acquire their energy?
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by the process of photosynthesis
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Which other kingdom is most similar to the Kingdom Animalia in characteristics?
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Fungi
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A cell that lacks organelles is a(n
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prokaryotic cell.
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Which group has prokaryotic individuals?
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Domain Archaea
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A basic difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell is that the prokaryotic cel
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lacks a nucleus.
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The main difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph is
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how they obtain energy.
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Using its antennae, the male moth finds female moths by following a trail of airborne chemicals, called pheromones, upwind from the female producing them. This is an example of how living things
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respond to stimuli.
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An organism’s ability to perceive stimuli from either the internal or external environment is called
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responsiveness.
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Which of the following is a characteristic of living organisms?
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Maintenance of precise internal conditions
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A change in the genetic makeup of a species over time is called
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evolution
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A mutation is a
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change in the DNA sequence.
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Francesco Redi designed an experiment to test the notion of spontaneous generation. He left the first jar of meat open to the air and covered the second jar. The first jar would be called the ________ jar.
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control
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Alexander Fleming observed a colony of mold that inhibited the growth of nearby bacteria. Which of the following was his hypothesis?
answer

The mold produced a substance that killed nearby bacteria.
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Which of the following is FALSE about scientific theories?
answer

They are firmly established and cannot be refuted

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