Chapter 9 Study Guide Modern World History

Industrial revolution
the shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine.

Enclosures
One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly owned by village farmers. Enclosures allow experimentation with new
agricultural methods

Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

Industrialization
the development of industries for the machine production of goods.

Factors of production
These were the resources needed to produce goods and service that the Industrial Revolution required. They included land, labor, capitol, and services. (LLCS)

Factory
buildings that contain machinery for
manufacturing

Entrepreneur
someone who organizes, manages, and takes business risks

Urbanization
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them making it more urban.

Middle class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers

Textile
A type of cloth or woven fabric.

Corporation
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.

Laissez Faire
the idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses

Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade in his book The Wealth of Nations (1723-1790)

capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
– an economic system in which money is invested in buisness ventures with the goal of making a profit.

Utilitarianism
the theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700’s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Socialism
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.

Karl Marx
A German journalist introduced a type of socialism called Marxism
-founder of modern communism

Communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

Strike
stop work in order to press demands

Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially

collective bargaining
negotiation between an employer and trade union.

Jethro Tull
Saw that scattering seed on the ground was wasteful since many failed to take root. So, he created the seed drill in about 1701

Cotton Gin
A machine for separating cotton from its seeds.

Steam engine
An engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power

Samuel Slater
Smuggled to the United States the design of a spinning machine.

Agricultural Revolution
a significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that change production

Union
an association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.

Communist Manifesto
The writings of a German Journalist named Karl Marx introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism

Lowell Massachusetts
a booming manufacturing center and a model for other such towns. Thousands of workers, mostly young single women, flocked from their rural homes to work as mill girls in factory towns like lowell.
-12 hour days, six days a week; decent wage; good opportunity