Chapter 9 – Observational Learning

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attentional processes;
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in Bandura’s theory, any activity by an observer that aids in observation of relevant aspects of model’s behavior and consequences
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generalized imitation
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tendency to imitate the model, even though observ’s initiative behavior is not reinforced
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motivational processes
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expectation of the observer that imitated behaviro with receive reinforcement
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motor reproductive processes
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skills required to perform modeled behavior
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observational learning
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change in behavior due to experience of observing model
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retentional processes
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skills required to perform modeled behavior
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vicarious punishment
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learning vicariously to avoid punishment of certain behavior
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vicarious reinforcement
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learning vicariously which in turn is reinforced
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Problem posed by observation learning
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Can one individual learn by observing the experience of another?
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1st Reseracher for experimental answer to problem and what were results.
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Thorndike, found, \”we should five up imitation as an a priori explanation of any novel intelligent performance\”
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Nased on generalized definition of learning, be able to say how observational learning may be defined, including how vicarious reinforcement/punishment learning might occur
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OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING; may be defined as change in behavior due to experience of observing model. VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT; observe looks on as model’s behavior produces reinforcement VICARIOUS PUNISHMENT; observer looks on as models behavior is punished.
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State essential difference between imitation and observation
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Observational learning is where the observer’s modeled behavior is reinforced, while in imitation the behavior is imitated without reinforcement
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Generalized Imitation? and why does it occur?
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it occurs because it is a product of experience, since imitating people has paid off in the past.
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How does the Baer/Sherman experiment address the question of generalized imitation?
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as the tendency to imitate increases by vicarious reinforcement, the observer will begin to imitate even in the absense of reinforcement
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List variable affection observational learning
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1)consequence of model’s behavior 2)characteristics of model 3)observer’s age 4)Learning History of Observer
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State main difference between two main theories-Bandura’s and Miller-Dollard.
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MAIN DIFFERENCE is the nature of scientific explanation. BANDURA looks for explanation within the individual (i.e. processes of motivation, attention, retention, and motor reproduction)
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Problems with explanatory value of Bandura?
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explanatory value of attn; why does one person attend to a model and the other does not? explanatory value of retention; universiality of its processes. if an animal doesn’t need it, why do humans do?
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Describe how observational learning is relevant in foraging
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if you are hunfry and you see others find and eat food, you would observe and do the same.
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Describe how observation learning is relevant in crime and television viewing
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through vicarious punishment, a child would be likely to learn that you shouldn’t steal or if you do steal, don’t get caught. and when you do not like a behavior of another, don’t hit them.

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