chapter 9 memory(AP Psychology)

question

spacing effect
answer

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
question

retroactive interference
answer

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
question

mood-congruent memory
answer

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
question

deja vu
answer

that eerie sense that \”I’ve experienced this before.\” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
question

priming
answer

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
question

relearning
answer

a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
question

recognition
answer

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
question

recall
answer

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
question

hippocampus
answer

a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
question

explicit memory
answer

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and \”declare\”
question

implicit memory
answer

retention independent of conscious recollection
question

amnesia
answer

the loss of memory
question

long-term potentiation
answer

an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
question

echoic memory
answer

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
question

iconic memory
answer

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
question

chunking
answer

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
question

visual encoding
answer

the encoding of picture images
question

semantic encoding
answer

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
question

effortful processing
answer

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
question

flashbulb memory
answer

a clear memory of an emotionally significant event
question

storage
answer

the retention of encoded information over time
question

sensory memory
answer

the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
question

imagery
answer

Mental pictures; image existing in the imagination; figurative language.
question

memory
answer

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
question

encoding
answer

the processing of information into the memory system
question

retrieval
answer

The process of getting information out of memory storage.
question

short term memory
answer

activated memory that holds a few items briefly
question

long term memory
answer

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
question

rehearsal
answer

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
question

serial position effect
answer

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
question

acoustic encoding
answer

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
question

mnemonics
answer

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
question

repression
answer

the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
question

misinformation effect
answer

incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
question

source amnesia
answer

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, is at the heart of many false memories.
question

proactive interference
answer

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
question

automatic processing
answer

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member