chapter 9 and 10 – Flashcards with Answers

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Soil is rich in humus and partially decayed leaves
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Deciduous Forest Soil
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Soil that has a substantial (large) organic layer; fire helps to breakdown plant material in this layer
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Grassland Soil
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Soil is rocky, very dry, and contains almost no organic matter
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Desert Soil
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Soil is acidic and contains very little organic despite large plant populations
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Tropical Rainforest Soil
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Soil composed of litter and humus; this soil is acidic due to the accumulation of needles
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Taiga Pine Forest Soil
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The arrows showing the removal of native grass, the exposure of bare topsoil, and wind and water erosion point to _______, leading back to the removal of native grasses.
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A positive feedback loop
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According to the flowchart, it is true that overgrazing by cattle _______.
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Increases the loss of topsoil
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One conclusion that can be drawn from the figure is that _______.
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Invasive species may do better in areas where overgrazing occurs
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Litter layer, mostly undecayed materials
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O horizon
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Oxidation of minerals, warm and wet conditions, reactions of water with parent material: all are composted with _______.
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Chemical weathering of soils
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The Flavr Savr tomato is no longer marketed because ______.
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People were nervous about eating genetically modified tomatoes
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Which of the following was a positive environmental aspect of the Flavr Savr tomato?
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Grown using less chemicals because it is less likely to rot
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Presently, ______ have not supported the widespread marketing of GM crops.
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European countries
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? Most insects are usually ______.
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? Essential pollinators and predators for successful agriculture
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? Seed banks are important for ______.
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? Protecting genetic diversity
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? To make organic fertilizer by composting you do not include ______.
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? Wastes from butchering animals
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? The threshold for chronically undernourished people are those who receive less than ______ calories each.
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2000
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? Acidic deposition on soil kills beneficial decomposers; which of the following cycles would be mostly loss of decomposers.
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? Nitrogen cycling
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? Industrialization ______.
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? Increased the ability to obtain more food from the same area
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? We lose 5 to 7 million ha of productive cropland per year to ______.
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? Erosion, overirrigation, and other factors
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? Which of the following best describes integrated pest management (IPM)?
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? Biocontrol measures, crop rotation, habitat diversification
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? Planting trees and/or shrubs between row s of crops is known as
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plants windbreaks
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? The zone beneath the A horizon, where leaching has deposited materials, is called the ______.
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B Horizon
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? Poor nutrient-holding capacity, good water infiltration capacity, and good aeration properties are examples of what type of particle found in the soil?
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Sand
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? Which of the following is a disadvantage of fish farming?
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? It can lead to die-offs due to disease.
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? Recombinant DNA ______.
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? Creates transgenic organisms
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? A thick, alkaline, dark soil, rich in humus, found in a semiarid climate would be most characteristic
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? Grasslands
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? Raising _______ requires the most land.
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? Beef cattle
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? The smallest particle of soil is known as
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Clay
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? ______ is any process whereby scientists directly manipulate an organism’s genetic material in the land, by adding, deleting, or changing segments of its DNA.
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Genetic Engineering
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? The second law of thermodynamics and the energy pyramid would tend to support
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People eating more grain than meat
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? Composting is a process that produces
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? A nutrient-rich soil conditioner
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? Leaching ______.
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Removes nutrient from soil
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? Earth’s surface is part of the
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? Lithosphere
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The Dust Bowl of the 1930’s resulted in the passage of what legislation?
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? Soil Conservation Act
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? In order for livestock to be considered organic ______.
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? Animals must be fed 100% organic agricultural feed
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? If GM crops can decrease pesticide us, why are environmentalists still concerned about them?
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? Inserted genes can spread to nontarget species.
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? The higher amount ________ in the soil, the better its nutrient-holding capacity
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? Clay
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? Green revolution techniques ______.
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? Have increased crop yields but may not be sustainable
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? Acid rain affects soil by
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? Lowering nutrient capacity
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? Malnutrition primarily refers to
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? A deficiency of micronutrients and vitamins in the diet
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? Most of the grain that is grown in the United States is used
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? To feed cattle, pigs, chickens, and other farm animals
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? Which of the following choices is something thought about by the beginning of agriculture?
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? The ability to rely on crops every year allowed people to have much more free time, resulting int eh development of crafts, agriculture and other “urban” professions.
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? ______ is agriculture that does not deplete soils faster than they form.
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Sustainable argiculture
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? What is the number one source of soil erosion?
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Water erosion
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? The deep, underlying non-soil materials
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? Bedrock or parent rock
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? ______% of the food we consume comes from ______ crop species.
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90;15
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? Which of the following is a trace element (micro nutrient) necessary for plant growth?
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Magnesium
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? Monoculture ______.
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? Describes the farming practice of growing large stands of a single species
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? One potential benefit to using genetically modified foods is
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Improved crop yields.

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