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chapter 9 – Flashcard Answers

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What has allowed there to be a better trade route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Sea. instead of the previous route of having to travel around Africa?
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Suez Canal
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the recognized violation of cultural norms
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deviance
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form of deviance, violation of society's formall enacted criminal law
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crime
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deviance calls forth____, which are attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
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social control
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genetic research seeks possible links between______ & _____
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biology & crime
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suggests that strong moral standards and positive self-image can keep boys from becoming delinquent
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recklness & dinitz containment theory
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formal response to an individual's alleged violations of law from polive, courts, and prison officials
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criminal justice system
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deviance varies according to_______
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cultural norms
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people become deviant as ___________.
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others define them that way.
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both norms and the wap people define rule breaking involve________.
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social power
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According to Emile Durkheim devience affirms _______ & ________
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cultural values & norms
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durkheim says responding to devience clarifies ________ & promotes _________.
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1. moral boundaries, 2. social unity.
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accoring to durkheim deviance encourages________.
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social change
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whos study brings durkheims to life?
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kai erickson's classic study of the puritans of massachusetts bay
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the strain between our culture's emphasis on wealth and the limited opportunity to get rich giv es rise, especially among the poor, to theft, and sale of drugs, or other street crime
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merton's strain theory
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mertons 4 types of deviance (responses to failure)
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1. innovation 2. ritualism, 3. retreatism, 4. rebellion
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extened merton's theory, proposing that access to illegimate opportuniries for success is also problematic. As a result of this, three different types of deliquent subcultures may arise
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cloward & ohlin
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cloward & ohlin's 3 types of delinquent subcultures
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1. criminal 2. conflict 3. retreatist
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suggests that delinquency is most prnounced in lower-class youths because they have the least opportunity to achieve conventional success
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albert cohen
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according to walter miller, deviant subcultures are characterized by :
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1. trouble 2. toughness 3. smartness 4. a need for excitement 5. a belief in fate 6. a desire for freedom
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idea that deviance and conformity result, not so much from what people do but how others respond
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labeling theory
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passing episodes of norm violation that have little effect on the self
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primary deviance
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when an individual repeatidly violates a norm and beginds to to an a deviant identity
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secondary deviance
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powerfully negative social label that radically changes a persons self concept and social identity operating as a master status
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stigma
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stigma's are often attached in a formal rituals
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degradation ceremonies
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argues that mentally ill is a label we attacg to people who are only different and concules that we should abandon the concept of mental illness entirely
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thomas szasz
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transformation of moral and legal issues into a medial condition
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medicalization of deviance
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his differential association theory suggests that all deviance is learned in groups
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edwin sutherland
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his control theory states that social control depends on imagining the consequences of ones behavior
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hirschi
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hirschi assers that conformity arises from four types of social controls
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1. attachment 2. committment 3. involvement 4. belief
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suggests that deviant labels are chiefly applied to those who impede the operation of capitalism
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steven spitzer
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crimes comittied by persons of high social position in ther course of their occupations
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white-collar crime
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illegal actiosn of a corportation or people acting on it's behalf
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corporate crime
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business supplying illegal goods or services
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organized crime
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criminal acts carried out against a person or a persons property by ano ffender motivated by racial or other bias
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hate crimes
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2 componenets of crime
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1. act itself 2. criminal intent
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the criminal justice system must operate within the bounds of the law.
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due process
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serve as the primary point of contact between the population and the criminal justice system
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police
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legal negotiation in which the prosecution reduces a defendant's charge in exchange for a guilty plea
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plea bargaining
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act of moral vengeance by which society subjects an offender to suffering comparable to that caused by the offense
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retribution
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attempt to discourage criminality through punishment
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deterrence
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reforming the offender to prevent subsequent offenses
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rehabilitation
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rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily throuhg incarceration or permanently by execution
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societl protection
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subsequent offenses by people convicted of crimes
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crimincal recidivism