Please enter something

CHAPTER 9-11

question

Picture of cochlea with different colors and frequencies indicates… A. the cochlea produces sounds of different frequencies. B. the auditory nerve transmits information to the brain. C. sound waves can travel at different speeds. D. complex sounds are made of simple sounds. E. the cochlea is tuned to different frequencies.
answer

E. the cochlea is tuned to different frequencies
question

The amplitude of a sound is the A. psychological aspect of sound related to frequency. B. magnitude of displacement of a sound pressure wave. C. amount of sound energy falling on a unit area. D. frequency of the sound. E. pitch.
answer

B. magnitude of displacement of a sound pressure wave
question

One of the roles of the ossicles is to A. transmit sound waves back to the environment. B. muffle sounds. C. prevent the cochlea from vibrating. D. protect the ear canal. E. amplify sounds.
answer

E. amplify sounds
question

They physical intensity of sound is measured in units called A. Hz. B. arcmin. C. mL. D. dB. E. mm.
answer

D. dB (decibels)
question

Frequency is usually measured in units called A. dB. B. Hz. C. mL. D. mm. E. arcmin.
answer

B. Hz (Hertz)
question

The lowest-frequency component of a complex period sound is its A. treble. B. bass. C. fundamental frequency. D. phase. E. amplitude.
answer

C. fundamental frequency
question

The acoustic reflex protects the ear from intense sounds by A. opening the oval window to transmit vibration. B. contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles. C. transmitting only low-frequency sounds to the brain. D. transmitting loud noises back to the ear canal. E. stiffening the round tympanic membrane.
answer

B. contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles
question

The shapes of each function depicted in the graphs determines the ______ of each the four sounds. A. timbre B. white noise C. pitch D. threshold E. notes
answer

A. timbre
question

The organ of Corti is a structure on the basilar membrane composed of ______ and dendrites of auditory nerve fibers. A. mucous B. tiny bones C. hair cells D. muscles E. fluid-filled chambers
answer

C. hair cells
question

The purpose of the ear canal is to A. conduct sound vibrations to the tympanic membrane. B. prevent damage to the tympanic membrane. C. transduce sound waves into electric signals. D. Both a and b E. All of the above
answer

A. conduct sound vibrations to the tympanic membrane B. prevent damage to the tympanic membrane
question

Most of the information about sound waves is conveyed to the brain by the A. inner hair cells. B. oval window. C. outer hair cells. D. tympanic membrane. E. cochlear membrane.
answer

A. inner hair cells
question

The ______ is/are a thin sheet of skin at the end of the outer ear canal that vibrates in response to sound A. cochlea B. tympanic membrane C. ossicles D. pinna E. ear canal
answer

B. tympanic membrane
question

The ossicles transfer sound vibrations between the _____ and ______. A. tympanic membrane; oval window B. ear canal; tympanic membrane C. vestibular canal; basilar membrane D. cochlea; vestibular canal E. ear canal; cochlea
answer

A. tympanic membrane: oval window
question

______ is the psychological aspect of sound related mainly to the fundamental frequency A. Tone B. Intensity C. Pitch D. Loudness E. Frequency
answer

C. Pitch
question

A complex sound consists of A. phases. B. periods originating from the same sinusoidal component. C. several cycles. D. cycles at more than 1000 Hz. E. more than one sinusoidal component of different frequencies
answer

E. more than one sinusoidal component of different frequencies
question

_____ is the psychological aspect of sound related to perceived intensity or magnitude A. Loudness B. Intensity C. Pitch D. Frequency E. Tone
answer

A. Loudness
question

The first area within the temporal lobes, which is responsible for processing acoustic information is called the A. primary auditory cortex. B. medial auditory cortex. C. lateral auditory cortex. D. parabelt area. E. belt area.
answer

A. primary auditory cortex
question

All AN fibers initially synapse in the A. primary auditory cortex. B. cochlear nucleus. C. parabelt area. D. belt area. E. cerebellum.
answer

B. cochlear nucleus
question

Hearing loss that is caused by problems with bones of the middle ear is called A. sensorineural hearing loss. B. conductive hearing loss. C. ototoxia. D. auditory suppression. E. masking
answer

B. conductive hearing loss
question

The _______ refers to a graph that plots the firing rate of an auditory nerve fiber in response to a sound of a constant frequency at increasing intensities. A. spike histogram B. frequency tuning curve C. rate-intensity function D. threshold tuning curve E. relative amplitude function
answer

C. rate-intensity function
question

A(n) ________ is a map plotting the thresholds of a neuron or fiber in response to sine waves with varying frequencies at the lowest intensity that will give rise to a response. A. characteristic frequency B. threshold tuning curve C. spectrum D. isointensity function E. place code
answer

B. threshold tuning curve
question

What is being plotted in the graph below? A. Equal frequency curves B. Equal sound level curves C. Psychoacoustic threshold curves D. Auditory response curves E. Equal-loudness curves
answer

E. equal-loudness curves
question

The primary auditory cortex (A1) is organized in a _______ manner. A. tonotopic B. retinotopic C. rows-and-columns D. center-surround E. topographic
answer

A. tonotopic
question

Which of the following is not a cause of hearing loss? A. Otosclerosis B. Otitis media C. Use of ototoxic drugs D. Excessive exposure to noise E. Masking
answer

E. Masking
question

What is the correct order for the structures through which sound information is transferred from the cochlea to the auditory cortex? A. Inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus, superior olive B. Medial geniculate nucleus, superior olive, inferior colliculus C. Medial geniculate nucleus, inferior colliculus, superior olive D. Superior olive, medial geniculate nucleus, inferior colliculus E. Superior olive, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus
answer

E. superior olive, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus
question

Rate saturation occurs when a nerve fiber is firing as rapidly as possible and A. then slows down. B. a second nerve fiber slows its firing. C. no transmission of signals can occur. D. further stimulation is incapable of increasing the firing rate. E. a second nerve fiber stops firing.
answer

D. further stimulation is incapable of increasing the firing rate
question

Which of the following is the process by which a sound at a constant level is perceived as being louder when it is of a greater duration? A. Auditory analysis B. Auditory intensification C. Temporal synthesis D. Temporal integration E. Auditory synthesis
answer

D. temporal integration
question

The belt area has neurons that respond to A. particular frequencies. B. more complex characteristics of sound. C. simple characteristics of sound. D. low frequencies only. E. language.
answer

B. more complex characteristics of sound
question

_______ refers to the idea that multiple neurons can provide a temporal code for frequency if each neuron fires first at a distinct point in the period of a sound wave but does not fire on every period. A. Phase locking B. Place code C. The volley principle D. Rate saturation E. Two-tone suppression
answer

C. the volley principle
question

What principle is illustrated in the figure below? A. Auditory transduction principle B. Two-tone suppression C. Frequency saturation D. The volley principle E. The isointensity principle
answer

D. the volley principle
question

Experimenters often use _______ as masking in their studies involving sound. A. white noise B. critical bandwidth sounds C. low-frequency sounds D. high-frequency sounds E. All of the above
answer

A. white noise
question

The figure below illustrates the phenomenon of A. threshold tuning. B. characteristic frequency. C. spontaneous firing. D. phase locking. E. rate saturation.
answer

D. phase locking
question

The part of a sound during which amplitude decreases is known as A. end note. B. tone. C. instrumental decrease. D. decay. E. sound decline.
answer

D. decay
question

The _______ is the relay station in the brain stem where inputs from both ears contribute to the detection of interaural time differences. A. cochlea B. frontal lobe C. medial superior olive D. pons E. lateral superior olive
answer

C. medial superior olive
question

_______ is the complex quality of sound that lets us distinguish a note played on the piano from the same note played on a trumpet. A. Attack B. Decay C. Dissonance D. Timbre E. Consonance
answer

D. timbre
question

The part of a sound during which amplitude increases is known as A. decay. B. pitch. C. attack. D. octave. E. start note.
answer

C. attack
question

The figure below demonstrates that the relative amounts of direct and reverberant energy coming from the listener’s neighbor and the singer will inform him of the A. location of the prime sound source. B. time it takes for sound to arrive to his ears. C. relative distances of the two sound sources. D. intensity level of the sound source. E. absolute distance of the direct energy source.
answer

C. relative distances of the two sound sources
question

_______ refers to the region of positions in space where all the sounds produce the same time and level (intensity) differences. A. Cochlear region B. Sound source C. Cone of confusion D. Azimuth E. Medial region
answer

C. cone of confusion
question

Neurons that are sensitive to intensity differences between the two ears can be found in the A. ossicles. B. medial superior olives. C. cochlear muscles. D. brain stem. E. lateral superior olives.
answer

E. lateral superior olive
question

According to the inverse-square law, as distance from a source _______, intensity _______ faster such that the _______ in intensity is the distance squared. A. increases; increases; decrease B. decreases; decreases; increase C. decreases; decreases; decrease D. increases; increases; increase E. increases; decreases; decrease
answer

E. increases; decreases; decrease
question

Which of the following methods of sound localization between the two ears is used most often for tones of very low frequencies? A. Interaural time differences B. Interaural level differences C. Interaural frequency differences D. Interaural echo differences E. None of the above
answer

A. interaural time differences
question

The figure below demonstrates that when only three harmonics of the same fundamental frequency are presented (b-d), listeners still hear the pitch of the fundamental frequency because the harmonics all A. share a common energy fluctuation every 4 ms, the period of a 250-Hz signal. B. have the same intensity. C. occur at the same time. D. peak at the same amplitude. E. All of the above
answer

A. share a common energy fluctuation every 4 ms, the period of a 250-Hz signal
question

Which of the following methods of sound localization between the two ears is used most often for tones of very high frequencies? A. Interaural time differences B. Interaural level differences C. Interaural frequency differences D. Interaural echo differences E. None of the above
answer

B. interaural level differences
question

Even if the lowest frequency of a harmonic sound is removed (as in the figure below), listeners still hear the pitch of this A. attack. B. missing fundamental. C. timbre. D. vibration. E. chord.
answer

B. missing fundamental
question

_______ is the lowest-frequency component of a complex periodic sound. A. Harmonic sound B. Missing fundamental C. Pitch D. Fundamental frequency E. Timbre
answer

D. fundamental frequency
question

The figure below shows _______ for tones of different frequencies presented at different positions around the head. A. interaural level differences B. loudness differences C. pitch differences D. cones of confusion E. interaural time differences
answer

A. interaural level differences
question

The blue circles in the interaural time difference diagram below refer to locations from which sound reaches the _______ first. A. pons B. superior olive C. right ear D. left ear E. brain stem
answer

D. left ear
question

The _______ is the difference in time between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other and it helps us localize sound. A. azimuth B. sound shadow C. cone of confusion D. interaural time difference E. interaural level difference
answer

D. interaural time difference
question

A very simple example of auditory stream segregation involves two tones with similar frequencies that are Answers: A. played continuously together. B. different in amplitude. C. started together at the same time. D. missing fundamentals. E. alternated.
answer

E. alternated
question

Which of the following describes the phenomenon of, for example, being able to identify the different instruments in a composition based on their distinctive sound characteristics? Answers: A. Grouping by decay B. Restoration effects C. Grouping by continuity D. Grouping by onset E. Grouping by timbre
answer

E. grouping by timbre
question

_______ effects have been demonstrated in the laboratory with a wide variety of target sounds and interrupting sounds. The simplest version of such an experiment is to delete portions of a pure tone and replace them with noise. Answers: A. Alternating B. Grouping by timbre C. Auditory segregation D. Grouping by onset E. Continuity
answer

E. continuity
question

This term describes the very rapid motor response to a sudden sound. Answers: A. Acoustic surprise reaction B. Auditory surprise effect C. Knee jerk reaction D. Acoustic startle reflex E. Auditory defense reaction
answer

D. acoustic startle reflex
question

Which of the following describes the phenomenon of grouping sounds that begin at the same time? Answers: A. Grouping by continuity B. Grouping by onset C. Restoration effects D. Grouping by decay E. Grouping by timbre
answer

B. grouping by onset
question

_______ is a process by which missing or degraded acoustic signals are perceptually replaced. Answers: A. Good continuation B. Auditory stream segregation C. Appropriate grouping rule D. Perceptual restoration E. Perceptual filling
answer

D. perceptual restoration
question

Which of the following does not contribute to auditory stream segregation? Answers: A. Location B. Onset C. Timbre D. Pitch E. All of the above contribute to auditory stream segregation.
answer

E. all of the above contribute to auditory stream segregation
question

Source segregation involves the Answers: A. combination of various harmonic sounds into one. B. tuning to one particular sound. C. missing fundamental. D. distinction of various harmonic sounds. E. distinction of auditory events in the broader environment.
answer

E. distinction of auditory events in the broader environment
question

According to brain imaging studies, speech perception occurs in the _______ lobe. A. occipital B. frontal C. temporal D. parietal E. medial
answer

C. temporal
question

The figure below shows _______ of sounds. A. frequencies B. graphs C. articulations D. vocalization plots E. spectrograms
answer

E. spectrograms
question

In the figure below, the peaks are referred to as A. troughs. B. sine waves. C. positive values. D. formants. E. maxima.
answer

D. formants
question

Which of the following is a pattern for sound analysis that provides a three-dimensional display plotting time on the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and intensity in color or gray scale? A. Encephalogram B. Vocalization plot C. Spectrogram D. Cartogram E. Sine wave
answer

C. spectrogram
question

Which of the following is the phenomenon whereby a person repeats the sound “gah” while the sound “bah” comes from a speaker and the observer hears the sound “dah”? A. The McGurk effect B. The speech continuity effect C. Noncategorical perception D. The cone of confusion E. The phonemic restoration effect
answer

A. the McGurk effect
question

Amazing evidence supporting the idea of learning to listen comes from A. newborns. B. stroke patients. C. the elderly. D. dogs. E. monkeys.
answer

A. newborns
question

After listening to manufactured sentences such as tupirogolabudapikutiladogolabutupirotiladodapiku for just 2 minutes, infants A. listen more intently to words from the stream than to novel words. B. listen more intently to novel words than words from the stream. C. stopped responding to words in their native language. D. learned how to articulate new sounds. E. can repeat the phrase perfectly.
answer

B. listen more intently to novel words than words from the stream
question

In categorical perception, listeners A. recognize melodies. B. discriminate sounds that are labeled differently. C. choose the correct sound. D. articulate various sounds. E. discriminate the intensity of sounds.
answer

B. discriminate sounds that are labeled differently