Chapter 8 Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease and Huntington’s Disease

question

Parkinson’s Disease
answer

A progressive disorder of the nervous system involving degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia and nigrostriatal pathways in the brain (Pseudoparkinsonism is a drug induced condition that resembles Parkinson’s disease)
question

Facts about Parkinson’s Disease
answer

About 1 to 1.5 million American’s have Parkinson’s disease, the average age at onset is 60 years,
question

Development of Parkinson’s Disease
answer

Pesticide exposure, carbon monoxide poisoning, heavy metal poisoning , infectious diseases, metabolic disorders, familial inheritance
question

Neurochemistry of Parkinson’s Disease
answer

Associated with an imbalance between dopamine and acetylcholine, dopamine release diminishes as the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons increases
question

Neurotransmitters involved in Parkinson’s Disease
answer

Dopamine, Aminobutyric acid(GABA), Glutamate, Acetylcholine (ACh)
question

Drugs used to treat Parkinson’s Disease
answer

by the administration of pharmaceuticals, exercise, and nutritional support. The strategy is to restore the balance between dopamine (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and ACh
question

Examples of Drugs
answer

Levodopa, Levodopa and carbidopa, Levodopa and benserazide, Tolcapone, Amantadine, Bromocriptine
question

Adverse Reactions of Anti-Parkinson’s Disease drugs
answer

Dizziness, lightheadedness, insomnia, confusion, auditory and visual hallucinations, nausea and vomiting, decreased appetite, hypotension and tachycardia
question

Huntington’s Disease
answer

A hereditary disorder, a progressive and degenerative disease of neurons that affects muscle movement, cognitive functions, and emotions. Is associated with defects in the basal ganglia, also produces excessive abnormal muscle movement
question

Symptoms of Huntington’s Disease
answer

Tremors, rhythmic oscillations or circular movements around ankles or wrists, repetitive movement, speech impairments, difficulty swallowing, facial grimaces
question

Neurochemistry of Huntington’s Disease
answer

Deficient levels of ACh and GABA lead to hyperactivity of dopaminergic neurons in nigrostriatal pathways. The balance between GABA, ACh, and dopamine is upset producing the excessive muscle movement associated with Huntington’s disease.
question

Drugs used to treat Huntington’s disease:
answer

MOA; decrease excessive dopaminergic activity. Tetrabenazine depletes stores of dopamine in the neuron. Phenothiazines and butyrophenones cause the blockade of dopamine receptors. Mostly Tetrabenazine and Haloperidol
question

Adverse Reactions of Anti-Huntington’s Disease Drugs
answer

Sedation, hypotension, dizziness, depression, confusion, weight gain, blurred vision, dry mouth, urinary retention

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member