Chapter 8: Learning (Psychology) – Flashcards

question
Learning
answer
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
question
Associative learning
answer
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
question
behaviorism
answer
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
question
classical conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
question
unconditioned response (UR)
answer
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
question
unconditioned stimulus (US)
answer
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
question
conditioned response (CR)
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
question
conditioned stimulus (CS)
answer
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
question
acquisition
answer
The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
question
extinction
answer
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
question
spontaneous recovery
answer
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
question
generalization
answer
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
question
discrimination
answer
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
question
operant conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
question
respondent behavior
answer
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
question
law of effect
answer
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
question
operant behavior
answer
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
question
shaping
answer
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
question
reinforcer
answer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
question
positive reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by presenting postive stimuli, such as food; when presented after a response, it strengthens response
question
negative reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; it is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
question
primary reinforcer
answer
innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
question
conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
answer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
question
continuous reinforcement
answer
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
question
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
answer
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
question
fixed-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
question
variable-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
question
fixed-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
question
variable-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
question
punishment
answer
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
question
cognitive map
answer
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
question
latent learning
answer
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
question
intrinsic motivation
answer
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
question
extrinsic motivation
answer
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
question
observational learning
answer
learning by observing others
question
modeling
answer
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
question
mirror neurons
answer
Frontal lobe neuron that fires when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; may enable imitations, language learning, and empathy
question
prosocial behavior
answer
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. the opposite of antisocial behavior
question
operant chamber
answer
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
1 of

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers
question
Learning
answer
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
question
Associative learning
answer
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
question
behaviorism
answer
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
question
classical conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
question
unconditioned response (UR)
answer
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
question
unconditioned stimulus (US)
answer
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
question
conditioned response (CR)
answer
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
question
conditioned stimulus (CS)
answer
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
question
acquisition
answer
The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
question
extinction
answer
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
question
spontaneous recovery
answer
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
question
generalization
answer
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
question
discrimination
answer
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
question
operant conditioning
answer
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
question
respondent behavior
answer
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
question
law of effect
answer
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
question
operant behavior
answer
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
question
shaping
answer
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
question
reinforcer
answer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
question
positive reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by presenting postive stimuli, such as food; when presented after a response, it strengthens response
question
negative reinforcement
answer
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; it is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
question
primary reinforcer
answer
innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
question
conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
answer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
question
continuous reinforcement
answer
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
question
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
answer
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
question
fixed-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
question
variable-ratio schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
question
fixed-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
question
variable-interval schedule
answer
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
question
punishment
answer
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
question
cognitive map
answer
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
question
latent learning
answer
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
question
intrinsic motivation
answer
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
question
extrinsic motivation
answer
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
question
observational learning
answer
learning by observing others
question
modeling
answer
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
question
mirror neurons
answer
Frontal lobe neuron that fires when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; may enable imitations, language learning, and empathy
question
prosocial behavior
answer
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. the opposite of antisocial behavior
question
operant chamber
answer
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.