Chapter 8 – Human Development

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Development
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The pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life. Developmental psychology studies patterns of physical, cognitive, and social growth
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Cross-sectional design
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a number of people are assessed at one point in time a problem with cross-sectional studies is cohert effects.
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Cohort effects
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are differences between individuals that stem not necessarily from their ages but from the historical and social time period in which they were born and developed
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Longitudinal Study
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Assesses the same participants multiple times over a lengthy period
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Nature
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refers to a person’s biological inheritance, especially genes
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Nurture
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refers to the individual’s environmental and social experiences
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Genotype
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individual’s genetic heritage
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Phenotype
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the person’s observable characteristics shows contributions of nature and nurture
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Phenylketonuria (PKU)
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genetic condition that results in an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
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Emergent property
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is a big entity that is a consequence of the interaction of multiple lower-level factors
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Resilience
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a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times
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Three domains of development
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Physical process Cognitive process Socioemotional process
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Physical Process (domain of development)
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Changes in the biological nature genes, hormones, brain, height, weight, motor skills
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Cognitive Process (domain of development)
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Changes in thought, intelligence, language
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Socioemotional process (domain of development)
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Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and personality.
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Broad periods of the life span
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Childhood – (infancy birth to 24 months) up to age 10 Adolescence – 10 to 12 Adulthood – early (20s and 30s), middle (40s and 50s), late (60 and beyond)
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Prenatal development
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begins with conception – when sperm merges with egg to produce zygote, a single cell with 23 chromosome pairs
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The course of prenatal development
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Germinal period- week 1 and 2 Embryonic period- week 3 through 8 Fetal period- month 2 through 9
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Germinal period (week 1 and 2)
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begins with conception, after week 1 and many cell divisions, zygote is made up of 100-150 cells. by end of week 2, the mass of cells has attached to uterine wall.
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Embryonic period (weeks 3 through 8)
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the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support system for cells develop, beginnings of organs appear. in third week, the neural tube takes shape, which eventually becomes spinal cord. by end of period, heart begins to beat, arms and legs are more differentiated, face forms, and intestinal tract appears.
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Fetal period (month 2 through 9)
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at start, fetus is size of kidney bean. organ functioning increases, and fetus puts on considerable weight and size. average newborn is about 19 inches and weighs about 7 pounds.
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teratogen
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any agent that causes a birth defect. includes chemical substances ingested by the mother and certain illnesses. depend on timing of exposure, the body part/organ that is developing is most vulnerable.
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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
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A cluster of abnormalities and problems that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily uring pregnancy. ex: small head, facial characteristics such as wide-spaced eyes, flattened nose, underdeveloped upper lip, defects in limbs and heart, and below-average intelligence.
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preterm infant
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born before 37 weeks
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Prenatal Refelexes
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Rooting, gripping, toe curling, moro/startle, galant
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Rooting
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by stoking the infants cheek, head turns in direction of touch
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Gripping
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by placing something in the infants hand, grasps item.
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Toe curling
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stroking inner/outter sole, toes curl and spread out
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Moro or startle
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sudden noise or movement will cause an infant to throw its head back and arms/legs out.
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Galant
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stroking of infants lower back, next to spinal cord, causes infant to curve towards the side that is stroked
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Motor development
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environmental experiences play a role, both nature and nurture is the consequence.
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Preferential looking
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a technique that involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at. if an infant shows a preference for one stimulus over another, it can be inferred that the infant can tell the two apart.
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Adolescence
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refers to the developmental period spanning the transition from childhood to adulthood.
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Puberty
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A period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence.
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Menarche
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Girls first menstrual cycle.
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Testosterone
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Is an androgen, associated with boys with the development of genitals, increase in height, and deep voice.
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Estradiol
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Is an estrogen, associated with girls with breast, uterine, and skeletal development.
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Prefrontal cortex
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Involved in higher-order cognitive functioning, such as decision making.
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Amygdala
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Involved in processing info about emotion
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Physical development in adulthood
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most of the changes that occur after adolescence involve declines in physical and perceptual abilities. downward trend in strength and hearing loss as adulthood approaches.
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Selective optimization with compenstion
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changing of goals and developing new ways to engage in desired activities
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Centenarians
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People who live longer than 100.
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Biological theories of aging
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Cellular-clock theory Free-radical theory Hormonal stress theory
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Cellular-clock theory
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Cells can divide a maximum number of about 100 times and that, as we age, our cells become less capable of dividing.
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Free-radical theory
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People age because unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals are produced inside their cells.
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Lateralization
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the specialization of function in one hemisphere of the brain or the other.
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Cognitive development
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refers to how thought, intelligence, and language process change as people mature.
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Cognition
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refers to the operation of thinking and also to our cognitive skills and abilities
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Schema
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is a mental concept or framework that organizes information and provides a structure for interpreting it. expressed as various behaviors and skills that the child can exercise in relation to objects or situations.
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Assimilation
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Occurs when individuals incorporate new info into existing knowledge.
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Accomodation
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Occurs when individuals adjust their schemas to new info
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Sensorimotor stage
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lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motor actions. begin to use symbols or words in their thinking.
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Object permanence
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Piaget’s term for the crucial accomplishment of understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched. \”out of sight, out of mind\”
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Preoperational Stage
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Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, lasting from 2 to 7 years of age, during which thought is more symbolic than sensorimotor thought. Child is egocentric, they are not self-centered, but just can’t put themselves into others’ shoes. It is intuitive – based on gut instinct versus logic.
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Conservation
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A belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects despite superficial changes. (A, B, and C cups liquid experiment)
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Concrete Operational stage
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7 to 11 years of age. Involves using operations and replacing intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations. Ex: amount of play-doh is not changed by changing its shape ability to classify or divide things into different sets or subsets
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Formal Operational stage
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11-15 years of age and continues through adult years. More abstract and logical. Thinking about things that are not concrete, making predictions, using logic to formulate hypothesis. Idealistic – compares how things are to how they might be.
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Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
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denotes adolescent’s ability to develop hypothesis.
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Piaget’s four developmental stages
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Sensorimotor stage Preoperational stage Concrete Operational stage Formal Operational stage
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Baillargeon: An Alternative way of object permanence
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Researchers found that cognitive abilities emerge earlier in children. Documented in infants as young as 3 months of age.
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Vygotsky: Cognitive development in cultural context
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Piaget did not think that culture and education played a role in children’s cognitive development. For Piaget, active interaction with the physical world was all that was needed to go through these stages.
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Wisdom
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Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life.
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Socioemotional process
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involves changes in an individuals social relationships, emotional life, and personal qualities.
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Temperament
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Refers to an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic ways of responding. Emotionality.
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3 Basic types of temperament
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Easy child Difficult child Slow-to-warm-up child
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Easy Child
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Generally a positive mood, quickly establishes reg routines in infancy, easily adapts to new experiences.
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Difficult child
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Generally fussy and cries a lot, irregular daily routines.
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Slow-to-warm-up child
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has low activity level, withdraws from new situations, very cautious in the face of new experiences.
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Effortful control / self-regulation (different dimension)
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controlling arousal and not being easily agitated
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Inhibition (different dimension)
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being shy and showing distress in an unfamiliar situation
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Negative activity (different dimension)
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tending to be frustrated or sad.
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Harry Harlow
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Study on essential importance of warmth. Used baby monkeys, wire-mom and cloth-mom.
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Infant attachment
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The close emotional bond between an infant and his/her caregiver.
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John Bowlby
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theorized that the infant and the mother instinctively form an attachment
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Stranger situation test
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Developed by Mary Ainsworth, study differences in children’s attachment.
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Secure attachment
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The way that infants use their caregiver, usually their mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment.
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Erikson’s eight stages of psychological development
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Trust vs Mistrust Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Initiative vs Guilt Industry vs Inferiority Identity vs Identity Confusion Intimacy vs Isolation Generativity vs Stagnation Integrity vs Despair
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Trust vs Mistrust
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Infancy (birth to 1 1/2 years) Trust requires physical comfort and minimal amount of fear of the future. Infants basic needs are met by caregivers. Creates life expectation that people are good.
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Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
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Toddlerhood (1 1/2 years to 3 years) Infants discover they have a will of their own. Assert their sense of autonomy/independence. If punished too harshly, will develop a sense of shame and doubt.
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Initiative vs Guilt
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Early childhood (preschool years, ages 3-5) Challenged more and need to develop more purposeful behavior to cope with these challenges. Assume more responsibility.
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Industry vs Inferiority
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Middle and late childhood (6 years-puberty). Elementary years. Enthusiastic! Direct energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. Danger at this stage involves feeling incompetent and unproductive.
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Identity vs Identity confusion
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Adolescence (10-20 years) Who they are, what they are all about, where they are going in life. Career exploration is important. Key challenge in adolescence
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Intimacy vs Isolation
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Early adulthood (20s and 30s) Forming intimate relations; finding oneself yet losing oneself in another person.
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Generativity vs Stagnation
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Middle adulthood (40s and 50s) Assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives
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Integrity vs Despair
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Late adulthood (6os- ) Look back and evaluate lives, can either be positive or negative. Coming to terms with death
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Avoidant/dismissive attachment style
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Infant might not notice mother has gone
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Anxious/preoccupied attachment style
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responds with intense distress when mother leaves, only to rage when she returns.
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4 Basic styles of parenting
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Authoritarian parenting Authoritative parenting Neglectful parenting Permissive Parenting
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Authoritarian parenting
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Strict punitive style. Limits and controls the child with little verbal exchange. Children sometimes lack social skills, show poor initiative, and compare themselves with others.
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Authoritative parenting
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Encourages child to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior. Style is more collaborative- give-and-take is allowed. Parents are warm and nurturing toward child. Child tends to be socially competent, self-reliant, and socially responsible.
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Neglectful parenting
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Lack of parental involvement. Children think that other aspects of parents lives are more important. Children are less competent socially, handle independence poorly, and show poor self-control.
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Permissive parenting
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Parent lets child do as they please. Child rates poorly in social competence, fails to learn respect for others, expects to get their way, and have difficulties in controlling behavior.
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Identity confusion
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either withdraw/isolate from family, peers, and loved ones or lose self in crowd.
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Marcia’s theory of identity status
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describes an adolescent’s position in the development of an identity. Exploration and commitment are important.
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Marcia’s 4 Identity statuses
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Identity Diffusion Identity Moratorium Identity Foreclosure Identity Achievement
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Identity diffusion
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Adolescent had neither explored nor committed to an identity.
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Identity Moratorium
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The adolescent is actively exploring and trying on new roles but has not committed to a particular activity.
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Identity Foreclosure
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The adolescent has committed to a particular identity, but has done so without actually exploring the options
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Identity achievement
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After exploring options and committing to an identity, the adolescent emerges a sense of self values and principles.
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biculturalism
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identifying with their ethnic minority group and in some ways with the majority culture.
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Emerging adulthood
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transitional period from adolescence to adulthood, 18-25 years old.
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Jeffery Arnett’s 5 main features of emerging adulthood
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Identity exploration, especially in love and work Instability Self-focus Feeling \”in between\” (not still a child, not an adult) The age of possibilities
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Gottman’s 4 principles at work in successful marriages
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1. Nurturing fondness and admiration: Positive talk with and about each other 2. Turning towards each other as friends: 3. Giving up some power 4. Solving conflicts together: compromise
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Socioemotional selectivity theory
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narrowing of social contacts and the increase in positive emotion that occurs with age. seen in older people.
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Gender
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being male (XY) or female (XX) includes biological, cognitive, and socioemotional factors
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Gender schema
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a mental framework or understanding what it means to be male or female in ones culture.
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Gender roles
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roles that reflect the individual’s expectations for how females and males should think, feel, and act.
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Gender similarities hypothesis
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Hyde’s proposition that men and women are much more similar than they are different.
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John/Joan case
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One twin boy was changed to a girl after months of being born. Example of nurture’s triumph over nature.
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Moral development
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involves changes that occur with age in peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding the principles and values that guide them.
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Kohlberg’s 3 stages of moral development
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Preconventional: moral reasoning is based on consequences of a behavior Conventional: abides by standards learned from parents or society Postconventional: recognizes alternative moral courses, explores options, and develops moral code.
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Prosocial behavior
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behavior that is intended to benefit other people
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Kubler-Ross’s Stages of Dying
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1. Denial – \”this cant be true\” 2. Anger – \”why me\” 3. Bargaining – \”if i could just have a little more time, I’ll do anything\” 4. Depression – \”whats the point of doing anything anyway\” 5. Acceptance – \”it’ll be okay\”
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4 patterns of grief
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1. Resilience – immediate grief, brief time and quickly return to normal functions. does not disrupt life 2. Recovery – profound sadness and grief that dissipates more slowly. 3. Chronic dysfunction – traumatic grief leads to long-term disruption of functioning. at risk for psychological disorders such as depression 4. Delayed grief or trauma – sadness that comes over a person weeks or months later.

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