Chapter 8 – Space Answers

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Memory
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the persistence of learning overtime through the storage and retrieval of information
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Recall
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retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but was previously learned. ” fill in the blank”
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Recognition
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identifying items previously learned; multiple choice test
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Relearning
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learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time
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Rehearsal
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Through conscious repetition of information,we can encode information for long-term storage
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Imagine you have to pick the correct answer from a displayed list of options. This aspect of memory is known as:
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recognition
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Short-term memories have a limited life without what kind of processing?
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active processing
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Encoding
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the processing of information into the memory system
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Storage
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the retention of encoded information overtime
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Retrieval
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the process of getting information out of memory storage
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Sensory Memory
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the immediate, very brief, recording of sensory information in the memory system
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Short-Term Memory
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activated memory that holds a few items briefly
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Long-Term Memory
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the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
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working memory
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a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
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Explicit memory
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memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
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What is explicit memory also known as?
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declarative memory
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effortful processing
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encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
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automatic processing
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unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
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implicit memory
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retention independent of conscious recollection
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Implicit memory is also known as what?
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nondeclarative memory
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iconic memory
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a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
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echoic memory
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a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
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Who’s research on short-term memory capacity proposed that we can only store about 7 bits of information in our short term memory?
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George Miller
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Students who study at various times throughout the semester displayed better long term retention of the material. This best illustrates the value of:
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the spacing effect
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Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster a second time even though they cant recall having seen the story before. They most likely suffered damage to which part of the brain?
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hippocampus
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chunking
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organizing items into familiar, manageable units
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mnemonics
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memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
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Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by the activation of the:
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amygdala
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Hierarchy
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a branching/nested set of categories and sub-categories
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testing effect
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enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information.
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Shallow processing
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encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
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deep processing
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encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words
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Explicit memories of names, images, and events are held in what part of the brain?
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Hippocampus
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Which part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning
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cerebellum
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What structures in the brain are involved in motor movement and facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills?
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basal ganglia
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infantile amnesia
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conscious memory of our first three years is blank
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flashbulb memory
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a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
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Long-term potentiation(LTP)
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an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
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Who revealed that the reports of flashbacks were extremely rare in those patients whose brains were electrically stimulated in different cortical regions. Moreover, the flashbacks appear to have been invented, not relived.
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Loftus
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Priming
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the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
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What occurs during proactive interference?
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when something you learned previously interferes with your recall of something you learn later
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When people get depressed, they are often flooded with thoughts of failed relationships and missed chances, this experience best illustrates:
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mood-congruent memory
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Ivan recently suffered a severe stroke and is no longer able to remember events from his childhood.What are his memory problems related to?
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retrieval failure
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Who referred to priming as the “wakening of associations”?
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William James

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