Chapter 7 Study Guide- Cells

question

active transport
answer

movement of materials against a concentration difference without energy
question

cell
answer

basic unit of life
question

cell membrane
answer

controls what goes in and out of the cell and protects/supports it; located around the cell
question

cell theory
answer

states that all living things are composed of cells; cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things; new cells produce from existing cells
question

cell wall
answer

provides protection and support; surrounds plant cell membrane
question

chloroplast
answer

capture sunlight and converts it into food/energy for the cell to use; scattered freely in cytoplasm of a plant cell
question

cytoplasm
answer

fluid portion outside the nucleus
question

diffusion
answer

process by which particles move from an area of lower concentration
question

endoplasmic reticulum
answer

suggests the complexity of the cell and lipid components are assembled with proteins and other materials; located near the outer membrane
question

eukaryote
answer

has DNA in nuclei and are larger and more complex; high specialized; examples: plants, fungi, animals
question

facilitated diffusion
answer

molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the membrane, but pass through special protein channels
question

golgi apparatus
answer

modifies, sorts, and packs proteins in and out of the cell; located near the endoplasmic reticulum
question

homeostasis
answer

unicellular organisms achieve this with relatively internal physical and chemical conditions
question

hypertonic
answer

when comparing 2 solutions, the one with the greater concentration of solutes
question

hypotonic
answer

when comparing 2 solutions, the one with the lesser concentration of solutes
question

isotonic
answer

when the concentration of 2 solutions is the same
question

lipid bilayer
answer

gives the cell membrane flexible structure to form a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
question

lysosome
answer

filled with enzymes; takes wastes from cell and breaks it down; located in cytoplasm
question

mitochondria
answer

converts chemical energy stored in food to compounds for the cell to use
question

nucleus
answer

contains DNA and is the control center
question

organ
answer

to perform complicated tasks, many groups of tissues work together
question

organ system
answer

groups of organs that work together to perform a specific fucntion
question

organelle
answer

specialized organ
question

osmosis
answer

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
question

passive transport
answer

regulates the movement of molecules from one side of the membrane to the other side with energy.
question

prokaryote
answer

no DNA in nuclei; example: bacteria
question

receptor
answer

used to respond to chemical signals; signals molecular binds; located on the cell membrane
question

ribosome
answer

produce proteins that have coded instructions from DNA; found throughout cytoplasm
question

selectively permeable
answer

some substances pass across
question

tissue
answer

group of similar cells that perform a particular function
question

vacuole
answer

stores materials; surrounds nucleus
question

vesicle
answer

store and move materials between vacuoles; located near the golgi apparatus
question

What are the 3 statements that make up the cell theory?
answer

1. all living things are made of cells 2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things 3. new cells produce from existing cells
question

What scientists contributed to the formation of the cell theory? What was the contribution of each?
answer

Matthias Schleiden: concluded that all plants are made of cells Theodor Schwann: stated that animals are made of cells Rudolf Virchow: concluded that cells come from the division of existing cells
question

Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
answer

prokaryotes: no DNA in nuclei; smaller and simpler; still grow, reproduce, respond, etc. eukaryotes: has DNA in nuclei; larger and more complex; contains structures that are highly specialized
question

Identify ways that plant and animal cells are different.
answer

Plants have cholroplasts, cell wall, leucoplasts. Animals have chromatin, nuclear gap, cytoplasm, centriole.
question

Describe the process of diffusion, including an explanation of equilibrium.
answer

Diffusion is the intermingling of substances by natural movement of their particles. Equilibrium is the state in which a process and its reverse are occurring at equal rates so that no overall change is taking place
question

What is the difference between passive transport and active transport? Give examples of each.
answer

Passive transport regulates the movement of molecules from one side of the membrane to the other side- energy required; examples: diffusion, osmosis. Active transport is movement of material against a concentration difference- no energy required; examples: endocytosis, exocytosis
question

What would happen to a sample of your red blood cells if they were placed in a hypotonic solution? Explain.
answer

Water would go through the cell and it would collapse. Hypotonic solutions cause cells to swell and burst when filled with water because of the solution’s concentration of dissolved substances which is lower than solution outside of the cell.
question

Explain how cell, organ, tissue, and organ system are related.
answer

Cells are the basic structural units of any multicellular organism. A group of one type of cells together form tissue. Groups of tissues together in one organized structure that serves purposes to organs. A group of organs that serve similar functions make up an organ system. Cells> tissues> organs> organ systems

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member