Chapter 7 Questions Test Answers Essay

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which of the following would most sociologists consider deviant?
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Anything that violates accepted social norms Violating group norms, whether the behavior is legal or illegal
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Which of the following would be considered social norms?
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a company dress code sports rules friends’ ideas about how you should behave
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Which of the following are considered deviant behavior in the Unites States?
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drinking an entire bottle of vodka in one evening stealing a car is against the law because it is considered deviant behavior chewing gum while giving a political speech
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Erving Goffman coined the term_____ to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups.
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stigma
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The impact of stigmas on a society is that they
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devalue members of certain social groups
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Even though physical and behavioral characteristics stigmatized people, oftentimes high technology crimes do not. Which of the following are socially tolerated forms of deviance?
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file sharing pirating DVDs and motions pictures copying software to a computer without a license
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_____ are penalties and rewards related to social norms
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sanctions
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If we violate social norms, we may face punishment through informal or formal
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santions
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Social control can be best described as the techniques and strategies for preventing _______ behavior in any group or society.
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deviant
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The social psychologists _____ _____ made a useful distinction between conformity and obedience.
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Stanley Milgram
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The social psychologists Stanley Milgram used the term conformity to mean
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going along with peers who have no authority to control our behavior.
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Recruits who enter military service typically ____ to habits and language of other recruits and ______ the orders of superior officers.
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conform; obey
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Historically, legal measures aimed at blocking discrimination based on race, religion, gender, age, and sexual orientation were difficult to implement because many people tacitly encouraged the _____ of such measures
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violation
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Which of the following are considered deviant behavior in the United States?
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stealing a car drinking an entire bottle of vodka in one evening chewing gum while giving a political speech
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The failure to behave according to society’s norms can result in which of the following?
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fines fear and ridicule jail sentences
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Which of the following behaviors are examples of informal social control?
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Laughing at someone’s joke Making fun of someone who has demonstrated bad behavior
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Spanking children by parents, which is widely accepted in the United States and in many other countries, is a type of
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informal social control
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Formal social control is used to encourage _____ and _____ and to discourage violations of social norms.
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conformity; obedience
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Some sociologists see laws as
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changing standards of right and wrong, how violations are determined, and what sanctions should be applied
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sociologists view law as a process of ______ standards of right and wrong and how, and to what degree, violators should be punished.
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evolving
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According to _____ theorists, socialization develops our self-control so well that we do not need too further pressure to obey social norms.
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control
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____ and ____ theorists argue that the most powerful groups within a society can shape laws and standards to suit their own perspectives, whereas ____ theorists argue that standards of deviant behavior reflect cultural norms
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conflict; labeling; functionalist
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Emile Durkheim suggested that punishment within a culture help define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social ____.
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stability
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According to sociologists, deviant behavior occurs because of genetic disposition.
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False
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Conflict labeling funtional
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Agents of social control and other powerful groups can decide who is deviant to serve themselves Defining deviance emphasizes reactions to individual behavior Standards of deviant behavior reflect cultural norms
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According to most functionalists, deviance is
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a common part of human existence and helps define limits of proper behavior
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The term crime refers to a violation of a ____.
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law
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Which of the following are examples of white-collar crimes?
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corruption tax fraud stock manipulation
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_______ theory is also called the societal-reaction approach.
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Labeling
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Organized crime is
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the work of a group that regulates among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities.
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List the ways that organized crime infiltrates a society.
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It can take over a legitimate business. It gains influence over labor unions. It is like a large corporation only illegal. It can offer protection to merchants in exchange for so-called tax. It provides upward mobility for groups of people trying to escape poverty.
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1.Conformity 2. Innovation 3. Ritualism 4. Retreatism 5. Rebellion
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1. Accept approved social goals and the legitimate means of achieving them (I.e. those who do as expected) 2. Accept approved social goals but rejected legitimate means of achieving them (i.e. those who achieve success by criminal means) 3. Reject approved social goals but accept legitimate means of achieving them (i.e. those who follow social norms but have desire to succeed) 4. Reject approved goals and reject legitimate means of achieving them (i.e. dropout, slackers) 5. Reject legitimate goals and means and replace them with their own goals and objectives (i.e. cult leaders)
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_______ Theory attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants and criminals, while others engage in similar behavior are not.
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Labeling
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Which of the following statements represent social disorganization theory?
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Social problems increase when neighborhoods have deteriorating buildings and declining populations. Crime and deviance increase when the absence or breakdown of communal relationships occurs.
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The term differential justice can be defined as
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They type of treatment that different races, ethic groups

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