chapter 7 and 8 cis 100

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The Traditional File Approach
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Largely sequential or indexed file structures Many constraints: Program-data dependency High degree of data redundancy Low data integrity Accuracy Consistency Timeliness
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What is a Database?
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Definitions offered by Dictionary.com: A comprehensive collection of related data that is organized for convenient access Arranged for ease of use and speed of searches as well as retrieval of desired information May include a file cabinet, telephone book, etc. A computerized database has been likened to an electronic file cabinet of information arranged for easy access or for a specific purpose
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Hierarchy of Data
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Refers to the systematic organization of data within a database, often hierarchical Bit (combination of binary digits – 0 and 1) Character (or Byte) – smallest component Field (or Data Element) – a column Record – group of related fields Table (or File) – group of related records Database – group of related tables
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The Database Approach
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Database fields can hold information, images, sounds, video clips, etc. Field name allows easy access to the data Database management system (DBMS): a specialized program used to: Create databases Populate a database with data Organize, secure, and manage the data Manipulate data stored within a database
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Entity:
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an object about which an organization chooses to collect data, such as: People Events Products
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Keys
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are used to form links amongst entities
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The Database Approach
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Provides powerful mechanism for managing and manipulating data Data organized as entities Entity: an object about which an organization chooses to collect data, such as: People Events Products Keys are used to form links amongst entities
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Database management system (DBMS): a
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specialized program used to: Create databases Populate a database with data Organize, secure, and manage the data Manipulate data stored within a database
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Database Software
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Abbreviated as “DB” in technology circles Database Management System (DBMS) Used to Organize, Store and Retrieve Data Many software products available Freeware / Shareware / Open Source Spreadsheets: Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel Smaller applications use MS Access, MySQL, etc. Industrial strength or mission critical applications typically use SQLServer or Oracle DBMS software
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DB Software – Microsoft Access
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Widely available on Windows-based PCs Packaged with premium copies of MS Office Familiar look and feel (Windows-based) Relatively inexpensive vs. other DBMS Easy to construct a simple database Can build more complex structures It is a true relational DBMS
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What is a Relational DB?
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A collection of tables from which data can be accessed in a variety of ways without the need to further reorganize structure Once relationships are established, we can link the tables together to determine: Which students are enrolled in a class What products are sold in a retail store What stocks are in an investment portfolio
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Database Structure Field
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A single item of data common to all records Occurs as a specific column within a table
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Record
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Collection of data about an individual item Occurs as a specific row within a table
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Table
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A set of related records Also called a file (or perhaps even a worksheet)
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Accessing Data in a DB Query
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a message to the database requesting data from specific records and/or fields Produces a subset of data matching the criteria Structured Query Language (SQL)
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The Database Approach
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Databases must be properly secured Not everyone should have access to all data Users will have different views of the database, based on the data they are allowed to access Business unit managers establish security policies and Database Administrators implement the rules Ownership (business unit) vs. custodianship (IT) A poorly secured database leads to many problems Much information subject to legal and regulatory constraints – FERPA, HIPPA, SOX, etc
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Data Dictionary
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Special type of file within a DBMS Centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships, format: List of all tables in the database Number of records in each file Names and attributes of each field Most critical component of a DBMS, since it contains metadata for access and management
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Database Design
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Should be done by qualified people such as Database Administrators or DB Analysts Questions that need to be asked include: What do we have? (Input) What do we want? (Output) What do we need to get there? (Process) What needs to be kept? (Store) How are we going to build it? (Program) Who uses the data and how? (Security
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Who Collects Data and Why?
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Businesses To be competitive Data becomes a strategic asset Marketing firms and banks want to know more about: customers competitors, and themselves Research/Scientific institutions Government Biometrics: fingerprint and retina scan Protect against terrorism Identify tax fraud
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Where does data come from?Retail transactions
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Supermarkets – inventory updated Credit card transaction recorded Loyalty/discount card used Purchases at gas stations Supermarkets – inventory updated Credit card transaction recorded Loyalty/discount card used Purchases at gas stations
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What is Data Mining?
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Finding and extracting interesting data to make decisions and predict outcomes Databases Transactional / Operational / Production Scientific and engineering Object-oriented Data warehouses World Wide Web (WWW)
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Data Mining Applications Target marketing, market basket analysis, and consumer profiling
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Finding “model” customers who have similar characteristics – interests, income, spending Determine which customers buy what products
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Forecasting and customer retention
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Identifying customers who are likely to switch the phone service Then giving them the right incentives to stay
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More Data Mining Applications Risk analysis and management
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Assessing the financial viability of companies Fraud detection and management Auto insurance, money laundering, telephone fraud, credit card fraud Identify people who stage accidents to collect on insurance Detect illegitimate credit cards transactions Loan granting decisions Financial institutions – assess creditworthiness of customers for home mortgages and other loans
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Three-Tier Architecture
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Client Presentation layer (usually a GUI), simple logic for control purposes, input validation, etc. May be a “thin” (browser only) or “fat” PC Application (or Web) Processing logic for business rules and data access A “farm” consists of more than one server Database Organize, store and retrieve business data
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A “farm
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consists of more than one server
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Summary
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Organizations collect vast amounts of data Database approach has several advantages over traditional file approach Hierarchy of data Metadata and data dictionary Database management system (DBMS): tool to construct databases Three-tier architecture
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Web Technologies: A Review
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Several standards and technologies enable the Web to deliver rich information, including: HTTP, HTTPS, HTML, HTML5, XML File Transfer RSS Blogs Wikis Podcasting IM Cookies
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podcast
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A podcast is recorded audio stored on a Web sitethat can bedownloaded
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Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP
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transfer and download Web informatio
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HTTPS:
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HTTP secure for confidential data exchange
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HTTP secure for confidential data exchange
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unique address given to each Web site IP address: a special numeric address
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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML):
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: helps developer create Web pages : helps developer create Web pages

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