CHAPTER 6 Skeletal System STUDY GUIDE!

What are the 5 functions of the Skeletal system?
Support, Protection, Movement, storage, and hematopiesis.

How many types of bones are there?
4

What are the four major types of bones?
Long, Short, Flat, and irregular

What are the structures of long bones?
1.Diaphysis
2.Medullary Cavity
3.Epiphyses
4.Articular cartilage
5.Periosteum
6.Endosteum

Diaphysis is
shaft; a hollow tube, made of hard compact bone. Permits easy movement.

Medullary Cavity is
Hollow area inside the Diaphysis that contains yellow marrow.

Epiphyses is
ends of the bones. Red bone marrow fills the spongy bone composing epiphyses.

Articular cartilage is
a thin layer of cartilage covering the epiphyses

Periosteum is
a strong fibrous membrane covering long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces.

Endosteum is
a thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity.

What are the two major types of connective tissues the skeletal system contains
bone and cartilage

Trabeculae
Needlelike threads of spongy bone

Compact
Dense bone tissue

Spongy
Ends of long bones

Periosteum
Outer covering of the bone

Cartilage
Fibers embedded in a firm gel.

Osteocytes
Bone cells

Canaliculi
connect lacunae

Lamellae
Ring of bone

Chondrocytes
Cartilage cells

Haversian system
structural unit of compact bone

osteon
calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers that resemble an onion

Lacunae
Hard layers of lamellae in little spaces

Nutrients pass from the blood vessel in the ______ ______ through the canaliculi to the osteocytes.
Central canal

Osteoblast are
Bone forming cells

Osteoclast are
Bone-reabsorbing cells

The combined action of the osteoblast and the osteoclast sculpts bones into
their adult shapes.

Epiphyses plate is located
between the epiphyses and the diaphysis.

Growth ceases when all epiphyseal cartilage is transformed into _______.
Bone

What are the main bones of the axial skeleton?
1.Skull (Cranial, ear, and face bones)
2.Spine (vertebrae)
3.Chest/Thorax (Ribs and Sternum
4.Hyoid bone in the neck.

What are the main bones of the Appendicular skeleton
1. Upper Extremities (Pectoral shoulder girdle, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand bones.)
2. Lower Extremities (Pelvic hip girdle, Thigh, Leg, Ankle, and Foot bones.)

Bones of the skull are
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Sphenoid, and Ethmoid.

What are the sinuses?
Spaces or cavities within some of the cranial bones.

Paranasal sinuses are
frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones have opening into the nose

Sutures are
two pariental bones, which give shape to the bulging topside of the skull, form immovable joints.

Fontanels are
“soft spots” Where ossification is incomplete at birth

What are the names of the sections of the spine
cervical region, thoracic region, lumbar region, sacrum, and coccyx.

Concave curves are
Cervical and lumbar curves of the spine.

Convex curves are
Thoracic and sacral curves.

How many ribs do we have?
12 pairs

How many true ribs are there? and why are they considered true?
first 7; attached to sternum by costal cartilage

How many False ribs are there? and why are they considered false?
8,9, and 10; Because they are attached to the cartilage of the seventh rib.

How many floating ribs are there? and why are they called that?
last 2 (11 and 12); not attached to any cartilage.

Scapula
shoulder blade

Clavicle
Collarbone

Pectoral Girdle
Shoulder

Stenoclavicular
Joint between the clavicle and the breastbone

Humerus
long bone of the arm; second largest bone of the body

What is a rotator cuff
group of muscles held together

Radius and ulna
bones of the forearm

Pelvic Girdle
hip

Coxal bones
one is located at each side of the pelvis.

In an infant’s body each coxal bone consists of three separate bones called
ilium, ischium, and pubis. These bones grow together to become one.

Femur
only bone in the thigh. Longest bone in the body.

Tibia
Shinbone

fibula
outer lateral border of the leg.

Phalanges
toe and finger bones

Calcaneus
Heel bone

Metatarsals and tarsals
foot bones

What are the 3 kinds of joints
1.Synarthroses
2.Amphiarthroses
3.Diarthroses

Synarthroses is when a joint has
no movement; commonly known as sutures

Amphiarthroses is when a joint has
slight movement; when cartilage connects to articulating bones.ex. pubic bones

Diarthroses is when a joint has
free movement; contain joint capsule, joint cavity, and layer of cartilage over the ends of two joining bones.

joint capsule is made of
bodys strongest and toughest material fibrous connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane.

Ligaments
cords or bands made of strong fibrous connective tissue.

Articular cartilage
The layer over the joint ends of bones acts like a rubber heel on a shoe.

Bursa
Pocket of fluid that acts as shock-absorbing cushion around the bones of a joint.

Flexion
bending a joint

Extension
Straightening it out after flexion.

Abduction
away from the midline

adduction
towards the midline.

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