
the distance between identical points on successive waves. (units = m or nm) 


the vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough. (E = 1/λ) 


the number of waves that pass through a particular point in 1 second (Hz = 1 cycle/s = s^{1})
(s^{1} = 1/s)


What is the speed of a wave (u)? 

the product of the wavelength and frequency of the wave. (u = λv) 

What is the numeric value of the speed of light? 

C = 3.00 x10^{8}m/s
or
3.00 x10^{17}nm/s


In the electromagnetic spectrum what is the order of radiation types from highest to lowest energy order? 

Gamma rays, X rays, Ultraviolet, Infrared, Microwave, Radio waves 

Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of the red light emitted by a barcode scanner that has a frequency of 4.62 x10^{14} Hz.
1Hz = 1s^{1}


C = λv
λ = C/v
λ = (3.00 x10^{17} ^{nm}/_{s }/ 4.62 x10^{14 }s^{1})
λ = 649nm


What is Planck’s quantum theory equation? 

E = hv
E = energy of radiation (J)
h = Plancks constant (6.63 x10^{34} J.s.)
v = frequency of radiation (s^{1})


What is Plancks constant? 


What is the equation for the photoelectric efffect? 


The energy required to dislodge electrons from sodium metal via the photoelectric effect is 275kJ/mol. What wavelength in nm of light has sufficient energy per photon to dislodge an electron from the surface of sodium? 

The energy 275kJ/mol is for one mol of photons. To find the energy per photon, we must divide by avagadro’s number
E = (275kJ/1mol) x (1mol/6.022 x10^{23}photon) x (1000J/1kJ)
E = 4.567 x10^{19 }J/photon
E = hc/λ
λ = hc/E
λ = [(6.63 x10^{34 }J.s.) x (3.00 x10^{17 nm}/_{s})] /
(4.567 x10^{19} J)
λ = 436nm


When copper is bombarded with highenergy electrons, X rays are elimited. Calculate the energy (in joules) associated with the photons if the wavelength of the X rays is 0.154nm.


E = hc/λ
E = [(6.63 x10^{34 }J.s.) x (3.00 x10^{17 nm}/_{s})] / (.154nm)
E = 1.29 x10^{15} J



E_{(n)} = R_{H}(1/n^{2}) 

The change in energy when an electron undergoes a transition from one energy level to another is given by what equation? 

;E = R_{H} [(1/n_{f}^{2}) – (1/n_{i}^{2})]
(R_{H} = 2.18 x10^{18 }J)


Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of a photon emitted by a hydrogen atom when its electron drops from the
n = 5 state to the n = 3 state.


;E = R_{H} [(1/n_{f}^{2}) – (1/n_{i}^{2})]
;E = 2.18 x10^{18} J [(1/3^{2}) – (1/5^{2})]
;E = 1.55 x10^{19} J
E = hc/;
; = hc/E
; = [(6.63 x10^{34} J.s.) x (3.00 x10^{17 nm}/_{s})] /
(1.55 x10^{19} J)
; = 1280nm


What is the de Broglie equation? 


Calculate the wavelength of an electron traveling with a speed of 2.65 x10^{6 }m/s.
;
(mass of electron = 9.10939 x10^{28} g)
(1J = 1kg m^{2}/s^{2})
(h = 6.63 x10^{34} J.s.)


; = (6.63 x10^{34} kg m^{2}/s^{2 }s) / [(9.10939 x10^{31} kg) x (2.65 x10^{6} m/s)]
; = 2.74 x10^{10} m


Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of a H atom (mass = 1.674 x10^{27} kg) moving at a speed of 7.00m/s
;
(1J = 1kg m^{2}/s^{2})


; = h/mv
; = (6.63 x10^{34} kg m^{2}/s^{2} s) / [(1.674 x10^{27} kg) x (7.00 m/s)]
; = (5.66 x10^{8} m) x (1 x10^{9} nm/1m)
; = 56.6nm


What is the Heinsberg Uncertainty Principle? 

it is impossible to know simultaneously both the position and momentum of a particle as small as an electron 

If l = 0, what orbital is it in? 


If l = 1, then what orbital is it in? 


If l = 2, what orbital is it in? 


if l = 3, what orbital is it in? 


Which set of quantum numbers is permissible for; an electron in an atom?
;
a) n =1, l = 1, m_{l} = 0, m_{s} = +1/2
b) n = 3, l = 1, m_{l} = 2, m_{s} = 1/2
c) n = 2, l = 1, m_{l} = 0, m_{s} = +1/2
d) n = 2, l = 0, m_{l} = 0, m_{s} = +1


a) n =1, l = 1, m_{l} = 0, m_{s} = +1/2
b) n = 3, l = 1, m_{l} = 2, m_{s} = 1/2
c) n = 2, l = 1, m_{l} = 0, m_{s} = +1/2
d) n = 2, l = 0, m_{l} = 0, m_{s} = +1


What does paramagnetic mean? 

elements and compounds that have unpaired electrons and are attached to a magnet 

What does diamagnetic mean? 

substances in which all electrons are paired and are slightly repelled by a magnet 

What is the Pauli exclusion principle? 

no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. 
