Chapter 52 Clinical

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Refractile
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Causing light to refract creating a sharp boundary or image.
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Monouclear
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White blood cells; leukocytes that have unsegmented nuclei; monocytes and lymphocytes in particular.
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Myoglobinuria
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Abnormal presence of a hemoglobin-poke chemical of muscle tissue in urine as the result of muscle deterioration
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Phenylalanie
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Essential amino acid found in milk, eggs and other foods.
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Ischemia
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Decreased blood flow to a body part of organ caused by constriction or plugging of supplying artery.
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Enzymatic reaction
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Chemical retain controlled by an enzyme.
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White blood cells; leukocytes that have segmented nuclei. also known as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) or segmented neutrophils
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Polymorphonuclear means many different shapes.
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Glycosuria
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Presence of glucose in the urine.
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Renal there hold
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Level above which a substance cannot be reabsorbed by the renal tubules and therefore is excreted in the urine.
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Filtrate
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Fluid that remains after a liquid is passed through membranous filter.
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Urinometer
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A sealed glass float with a calibrated paper scale in its steam, with a slight spinning motion, it is placed into a cylinder containing a urine sample and the value is read at the meniscus of the urine.
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Strips used to test the specific gravity of urine is
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Dipsticks
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Device that measures the refraction of light through solids in a liquid
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Refractometer
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Clinitest
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Glucose test on a reagent strip. A tablet is dropped into a test tube of urine and the color of the tube’s contents is compared with a chart.
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Acetest
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REagent tablets used to test for the presence of fat metabolism by products.
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hCG
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Substance detected by all pregnancy test.
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Luteinizing hormone LH
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Increases in the concentration of urine shortly before ovulation.
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Amorphous
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Shape of urates or phosphates that settle out of unrefrigerted urine samples.
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Culture and sensitivity
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Procedure performed in the microbiology lab in which a specimens is cultured on artificial media to detect bacteria or fungal growth, followed by appropriate screening for antibiotic sensitivity.
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Medical term for a urine sample with a persistent greenish yellow foam that may indicate the patient has viral hepatitis.
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Bilirubinuria
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Gold standard
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Definitive diagnostic test to which all others are compared.
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Casts
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Protein that has taken on the size and shape of the renal tubules that is washed into the urine
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Cystoscopy
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A visual examination of the urinary bladder using a fiberoptic instrument
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Colony forming units
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A term used when reporting bacteriuria one unit represents one bacterium presents in the urine sample.
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The product of drug metabolism that is excreted into the urine
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Metabolite
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Crenate
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Notches or leaflike, scalloped edges that form on an object such as the changes that occur on the surface of a RBC when it is exposed to a hypertonic saline solution.
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Supravital
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A substance that is capable of staining living cells after their removal form a living or recently dead organism.
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Why must a sterile container be used if a urine culture is ordered?
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A nonsterile container would contaminate the urine specimean
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the five physical components of examination of urine are
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1. Apperance 2. Volume 3. Foam 4. Odor 5. Specific gravity
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Apperance
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Normal urine color is a a shade of yellow, raining from pale straw to yellow to amber. Color depend on the concentration of at the pigment urochrome and the amount of water in the specimens.
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Volume
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Urine produced every 24 hours varies according to the age of the individual
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Foam
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Careful observation of this property can be a significant clue to san abnormality presence of small bubbles that persist for a long time after the specimen has been shaken.
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Odor
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Urine may be caused by disease that presence of bacteria or diet.
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Specific Gravity
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is the weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of distilled water.
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Random Speciment
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to be collected when the patient arises in the morning, this is called the first morning specimens. Most common for pregnancy test.
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Two hour postprandial urine specimens
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this specimens is collected 2 hours after a meal. screening for diabetes and for home diabetic testing programs.
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Twenty four hour urine specimens
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Collected over 24 hours to allow a quantitative chemical analysis such as hormone levels and creatinine clearance rates. evaluation the glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys.
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Second Voided Specimen
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Collected to determine glucose levels.
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Catherterized speciment
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requires the physician assistant or nurse to insert a catheter into the patients bladder.
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Clean Catch midstream specimens
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may be ordered when the urine is to be cultured or examined for microorganisms.
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Screening for Bladder Cancer is done with
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BTA stat test a rapid single step immunoassay.
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Types of microscopic examination of urine
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1. Bacteria 2. Flagellates 3. Yeast
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Can a component of urine change if left at room temperature
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True
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Does Bacteria double every 20 minutes at room temperature
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True
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Does the ph increase
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Yes
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what is the ph level of urine
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5.50 to 8.00
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Uriometer
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sealed glass float with a calibrated paper scale in its stem; sun in urine sample value read at meniscus.
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Always check the expiration day
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True
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Does big range of ph depends on how much you drink
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Yes
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Hematuria
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Presence of intake red blood cells in urine, caused by irritation of the ureters, bladder or urethra cystitis or kidney stones.
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Hemoglobinuria
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Presence of hemplyzed red blood cells, very rare
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Ketones
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End product of fat metabolism
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Protein
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one of first signs of renal disease
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Glucose
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Minute quantities normally present in urine not detected.
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Nitrite
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Due to bacterial break down, common component of urine, positive test result indicates UTI
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Leukocyte esterase test
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WBC Present with UTI
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Anuria
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Without urena
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Pryuria
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Pus
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Polyuria
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Diabeties, urenate a lot
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Oliguria
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Scanty
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Leukocyte esterase
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infection
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100.5 to 10025
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specific gravity
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phenylketone
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body count
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Abnormal crystals are almost always in acidic urine identified by number and shape
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True
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The glucose test on the reagent strip will detect only glucose
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True
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CLSI
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12 ml need to do that to have a good test
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SSA sulfosalicylic acid test is for
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Renal disease and kidney failure
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Menopause testing
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CLIA waived lateral flow tests detect FSH in the urine.

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