Chapter 5 psb

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The RNA, DNA, and associated proteins in cell bodies are collectively referred to as
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Nissl substance.
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Circuits within the brain perform
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a function that contributes to a behavior.
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The key advantage of a reversible lesion is that
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each animal can serve as its own control.
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The ________ labeling method uses chemicals that are taken up by dendrites and then transported through axons toward terminal buttons.
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anterograde
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Formalin is useful in the histology laboratory because it
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halts the enzyme process that breaks down brain tissue after death.
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Which of the following is true of the anterograde labeling procedure?
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The target molecule is transported from the axon terminals back to the soma and dendrites.
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Successive pages of a stereotaxic atlas refer to
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various distances relative to bregma.
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The usefulness of pseudorabies virus for histological analyses is
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for the tracing of serial synaptic connections.
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Molecular biologists have tagged toxins to specific ________ that in turn will kill specific types of neurons.
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antibodies
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The ________ method can be used to identify the neural inputs to a brain region.
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retrograde labeling
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Which of the following is true of confocal laser scanning microscopy?
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The procedure can be used to visualize living brain cells.
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Which term below means \”moving backward\”?
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retrograde
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A key advantage of ________ lesions is that they affect only neural cell bodies and do not damage axons passing through the region.
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excitotoxic
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A temporary disruption of neural activity within a region of brain can be produced by
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using an injection of muscimol into the brain region.
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Imagine that feeding behavior was eliminated when a radio-frequency lesion was used to damage the lateral hypothalamus of a rat, which suggested that cells within this region initiate feeding. If a subsequent study failed to observe a change in feeding after injection of kainic acid into the lateral hypothalamus, what conclusion would be appropriate?
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The changes in eating noted in the first study are due to fibers that are passing through the lateral hypothalamus.
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The chemical ________ can be used to trace the paths of afferent axons
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fluorogold
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Which of the following is true of the experimental ablation technique?
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Magnetic stimulation of the brain is an example of the ablation technique.
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The surgical instrument used to implant an electrode or cannula into the brain is termed a
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stereotaxic apparatus.
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Which term below means \”moving forward\”?
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anterograde
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A ________ is a thin slice of brain used in histology.
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section
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Which of the following structures can be visualized with the light microscope?
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nucleus
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The ________ technique creates a brain lesion by killing neurons through overstimulation.
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kainic acid
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Of the structures in the following list, cresyl violet stains ________ most intensely.
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cell bodies
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Which of the following chemicals can be used to create a reversible lesion in brain tissue?
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a local anesthetic such as lidocaine
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The ________ instrument is used to slice the brain into thin pieces for later examination.
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microtome
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Which of the following represents a problem for interpreting the effects of a brain lesion on behavior?
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The lesion may impair the function of a distant neural structure, which in turn alters behavior.
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The key use of PHA-L, a lectin made by kidney beans, in neuroscience is to
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label neuronal pathways by anterograde transport.
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Which of the following techniques can reveal the three-dimensional detail of the cells within a brain section?
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scanning electron microscopy
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Which of the following is a rationale for lesion studies?
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The change in behavior that follows a particular brain lesion can give important clues about the function of that brain area.
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A recently developed method for tracing efferent axons involves
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PHA-L.
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________ is (are) a common landmark or reference point used for stereotaxic surgery.
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Bregma
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The three numbers listed on a page of a stereotaxic atlas refer to
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anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medal-lateral coordinates.
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A lesion technique that is selective for cell bodies involves
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overstimulation of glutamate receptors by kainic acid.
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Imagine that prior research has suggested that neurons from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to control eating behavior. To confirm this suggestion, your next step might be inject PHA-L into the ________ and confirm its transport to the ________.
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PVN; PFC
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The most common fixative of nerve tissue is
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formalin.
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The ________ technique could be used to trace axons that are afferent to the injected region.
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retrograde labeling
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Dyes such as methylene blue and cresyl violet were originally developed to
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dye cloth
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Immunocytochemical techniques take advantage of the specific affinity of antibodies for
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a peptide or protein molecule.
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One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
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experimental ablation
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________ refers to a histological procedure in which blood is drained and replaced by another fluid, such as a salt solution.
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Perfusion
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________ are produced by some white blood cells and act to destroy invading microorganisms in the body.
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Antibodies
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The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease relate to a lack of ________ within the ________.
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dopamine; basal ganglia
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Infusion of ________ into the brain will destroy cell bodies through the process of overstimulation.
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kainic acid
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The ________ technique would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region.
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anterograde labeling method
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A(n) ________ allows an experimenter to determine whether a lesion in a rat brain produced a specific behavioral effect.
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sham-lesion control group
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The limit of magnification at which a light microscope can resolve the fine details of brain structure is X
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1,500
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Mr. B. suffered a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in his brain after ingesting a neurotoxin. Which of the therapies below was successful in restoring his motor function?
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injection of fetal nigrostriatal neurons into Mr. B.’s caudate nucleus and putamen
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The fine details of neuron structure in a brain slice or section are revealed by
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stains
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Of the following, which term does not belong with the other four terms?
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electrical stimulation of the brain
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Which of the following is true of stereotaxic surgery?
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The head-holder is designed to fix the skull in a rigid position.

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