Chapter 5 Flexibility and low-back health

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Flexibility
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The ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion (ROM)
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Types of flexibility
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Static and Dynamic
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Static flexibility
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refers to the ability to assume and maintain and extended position at one end or point in a joints ROM. *most research and easier to measure “
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Dynamic Flexibility
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involves movement, it is the ability to move a joint through its ROM with little resistance. (ADls sports)
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Joint structure
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Joints vary in direction and range of movement
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Joint capsule
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semi-elastic structures that provide strength and stability but limit movement.
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Collagen
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White fibers that provide structure and support
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Elastin
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yellow fiber that are elastic and flexible
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Tintin
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muscle filament that have elastic properties
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Connective tissue
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tendons and ligaments
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Benefits of flexibilty
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Prevent lower back health, temporary reduction in post exercise soreness also called DOM delayed onset muscle soreness, relief ache and muscle cramps, improved body position and strength, maintain posture, relaxation, lifetime wellness benefits,
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Applying the FITT principle
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Frequency- how many days a wee, Intensity- how far to stretch, Time- How long to stretch, Type- which stretches to do for each exercise.
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Frequency
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ACSM recommends 2-3 days a week.
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Intensity
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Until you feel a slight mild discomfort
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Time-
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hold each stretch for 10-30 second, 4 repetitions, rest for 30-60 seconds
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Static Stretching
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stretching the muscle slowing and holding the position
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Ballistic Stretching
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suddenly stretching the muscle by bouncing and swinging
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Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitaion
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obtaining a greater training effect by using neuromuscular reflexes such as contracting a muscle before its stretched.
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Passive stretching
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muscles are stretched by a force that is applied by an outside source
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Active stretching
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muscles are stretched by a contraction of the opposing muscle.
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Safest technique for stretching
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active
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The most effective stretching
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Passive
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Function of spine
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Anterior(front), posterior(back)
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Anterior
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Helps protect and surround the spinal cord, supports body weight, provides structural support,
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Posterior
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Serves as attachment site for ligaments tendons muscles, allows movement of the neck and back in all directions.
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Structure of the spine
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7 cervical vertebrae in the neck, 12 thoracic vertebrae in the upper back, 5 lumbar vertebrae in the lower back, 9 vertebrae at the base of the spine fused into the sacrum and the coccyx (tailbone)
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Vertebrae consist of
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an arch and several bony processes
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Intervertebral disks
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elastic disk located between adjoining vertebrae:consist of a gel- and water-filled nucleus as surrounded by fibrous rings, serves as shock absorbers.
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Nerve roots
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base of pairs of spinal nerves that branch off the spinal cord.
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Causes of back pain
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Any movement that cause excessive stress, acute, chronic. Forces on the inter-vertebral disk, Compression, Tensile, Shear, Combination
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Risk factors
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age greater than 34 years old, degenerative diseases, family or personal history trauma, overweight, stress or depression, smoking,
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Underlying causes of back pain
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lifestyle, poor posture Kyphosis, lordosis, poor body mechanics, poor muscle endurance or strength.
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Preventing low back pain
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Lose weight, stop smoking, reduce emotional stress, avoid sitting standing or working in the same place for too long, warm up before exercise,
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Managing acute back pain
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sudden back pain usually involves tissue injury,
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symptoms acute back pain
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pain, muscle spasms, stiffness, inflammation,
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Treatment for acute back pain
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ice, then heat, OTC medication ( ibuprofen) Moderate stretching exercise.
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Mckenzie extension exercises
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first aid- restore lordosis perform for one week
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exercise 1
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Lying face down. acute back pain first aid exercise relax. 4-5minutes 6-8 minutes a day every 2 hours.
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exercise 2
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lying face down in extension, second phase relax,pain reduction and centralization of the discc, 5 minutes
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exercise 3
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extension in lying, third phase, hold for 1 – 2 seconds
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exercise 4
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extension in standing, drop exercises 1-2 add 3 -4
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exercise 5
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add after pain has subsided pain free 2-3 weeks. Flexion in lying
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exercise 6
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flexion in sitting
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Active Modalities
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depends on diagnosis, signs, and symptoms
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Managing chronic back pain symptoms
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stabbing or shooting pain, steady ache and stiffness, pain radiates to other parts of the body,
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Chronic back pain treatments
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medication, exercise, physical therapy, massage acupuncture, education and surgery
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exercises for the prevention and management of low back pain
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do low back exercises 3 times a week, emphasize muscular endurance (static,dynamic) do no do full range of motion spine, engage in regular endurance(aerobic)exercise

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