Chapter 5 Biology Study Guide.

What is G1?

What is DNA Synthesis?
Replicating DNA

What is G2?
More Growth

What is Mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase. Chromosomes Condense

How did G1 and G2 get their names?
By a gap

Where does DNA synthesis happen in eukaryotic cells?

What 2 processes make up the M stage?
Mitosis and cytokinesis

What is G0?
Some cells that are unlikely to divide

What typically increases faster as a cell grows, surface area or volume?
Volume (stuff on the inside)

What is a chromosome?
One long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information

Why do chromosomes condense at the start of mitosis?
Start of Mitosis, so they can be easily divided between the two nuclei

Why are chromosomes not condensed during all stages of the cell cycle?
Don’t constantly divide

How does interphase prepare a cell to divide?
By duplicating DNA

Mitosis occurs on what types of cells?

What is one phase of Prophase?
During prophase, chromosomes condense and spindle fibers

What is one phase of Metaphase?
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

What is one phase of Anaphase?
Sister chromotids seperate

What is one phase of Telophase?
New nuclei form, begin to uncoil

How does cytokinesis differ between plant and animal cells?
Plants have a cell wall

What type of disease may result if cell division is not properly regulated?

List 3 ways mutations can occur in genes involving in cell-cycle regulation.
Inherited, Chemicals and radiation, viruses

What does metastasize mean?
to spread by transferring a disease caused agent

If a eukaryotic organism reproduces through mitosis, what is true about the offspring and the parent organism?
Will be genetically identical

In what types of organisms is mitotic reproduction most common?
Simple plants and animals

List 3 examples of mitotic reproduction.
Budding-hidra, Fragmentation-splitting, vegatative-potato

What forms of reproduction does the sea anemone use?
Both sexual and asexual by braking off

List 2 examples of tissues found in plants.
Vascular and photosynthetic

List 2 examples of organ systems found in plants.
Shoot and root

How does an organism benefits from organ systems that work together and communicate?
Help carry out complex/functions

What is the process by which unspecialized cells develop into specialized cells?
Cell differentiation

Do different types of cells have different DNA?

What role does cell location play within a developing embryo?
Determines how to differentiate

List 3 identifying characteristics of stem cells.
Divide and renew themselves, Remain undifferentiated in form, Develop into a variety of specialized cell types

List one advantage of using adult stem cells and one advantage of using embryonic stem cells.
May prevent transplant rejection, Grown indefinitely.

What is cell differentiation?
Specialized cells

Write the following in order from biggest to smallest….. cell, organ, organ system, tissue.
Organ system, Organ, Tissue, Cell