Chapter 5 Biology Study Guide.

What is G1?
Growth
What is DNA Synthesis?
Replicating DNA
What is G2?
More Growth
What is Mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase. Chromosomes Condense
How did G1 and G2 get their names?
By a gap
Where does DNA synthesis happen in eukaryotic cells?
Nucleus
What 2 processes make up the M stage?
Mitosis and cytokinesis
What is G0?
Some cells that are unlikely to divide
What typically increases faster as a cell grows, surface area or volume?
Volume (stuff on the inside)
What is a chromosome?
One long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information
Why do chromosomes condense at the start of mitosis?
Start of Mitosis, so they can be easily divided between the two nuclei
Why are chromosomes not condensed during all stages of the cell cycle?
Don’t constantly divide
How does interphase prepare a cell to divide?
By duplicating DNA
Mitosis occurs on what types of cells?
Body
What is one phase of Prophase?
During prophase, chromosomes condense and spindle fibers
What is one phase of Metaphase?
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
What is one phase of Anaphase?
Sister chromotids seperate
What is one phase of Telophase?
New nuclei form, begin to uncoil
How does cytokinesis differ between plant and animal cells?
Plants have a cell wall
What type of disease may result if cell division is not properly regulated?
Cancer
List 3 ways mutations can occur in genes involving in cell-cycle regulation.
Inherited, Chemicals and radiation, viruses
What does metastasize mean?
to spread by transferring a disease caused agent
If a eukaryotic organism reproduces through mitosis, what is true about the offspring and the parent organism?
Will be genetically identical
In what types of organisms is mitotic reproduction most common?
Simple plants and animals
List 3 examples of mitotic reproduction.
Budding-hidra, Fragmentation-splitting, vegatative-potato
What forms of reproduction does the sea anemone use?
Both sexual and asexual by braking off
List 2 examples of tissues found in plants.
Vascular and photosynthetic
List 2 examples of organ systems found in plants.
Shoot and root
How does an organism benefits from organ systems that work together and communicate?
Help carry out complex/functions
What is the process by which unspecialized cells develop into specialized cells?
Cell differentiation
Do different types of cells have different DNA?
No
What role does cell location play within a developing embryo?
Determines how to differentiate
List 3 identifying characteristics of stem cells.
Divide and renew themselves, Remain undifferentiated in form, Develop into a variety of specialized cell types
List one advantage of using adult stem cells and one advantage of using embryonic stem cells.
May prevent transplant rejection, Grown indefinitely.
What is cell differentiation?
Specialized cells
Write the following in order from biggest to smallest….. cell, organ, organ system, tissue.
Organ system, Organ, Tissue, Cell