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Chapter 4 – Theories and Techniques of Group Counseling

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Theory
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provides you with a structure for designing appropriate interventions and evaluating the outcomes of the group as whole and of the individual members not a rigid set of structures. gives a sense of direction to what you do and say in a group
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Approach to Group Practice (4)
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consider: 1. your own personality 2. interpersonal strengths 3. life experiences 4. worldview
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Technical Integration (3)
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1. focus on differences 2. uses techniques drawn from many approaches 3. based on systematic selection of techniques
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Theoretical Integration (3)
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1. theoretical or conceptual creation 2. more than just a blending of techniques 3. synthesis of the best of two or more theoretical approaches offers richer possibilities than restricting practice to a single theory
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Thinking, Feeling, and Behaving Model
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1. paying attention to what group members are thinking, feeling, and doing
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Thinking, Feeling, and Behaving Model – Cognitive Domain
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focuses on the thinking or thought process of group members –reflect on events and how they can have interpreted these events –explore beliefs so that they can change in the direction they want
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Thinking, Feeling, and Behaving Model – Affective Domain
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focuses on the feelings of group members —identify and express their feelings
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Thinking, Feeling, and Behaving Model – Behavior domain
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acting and doing —a more active component of change –does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want to know, will it take you in the direction you want to go
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Importance of a Client-Centered Approach
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1. consider the various systems that affect people 2. place emphasis on the role of choice and responsibility in the therapeutic process 3. client-therapist relationship and the methods a therapist uses are the best predictors of therapy outcome
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Technique
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a leader’s explicit and directive request for the purpose of focusing on material, augmenting or exaggerating affect, practicing behavior, or consolidating insight and new learning
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Guidelines for the Selection & Use of Techniques (5)
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1. have a purpose and are grounded in some theoretical framework 2. presented in an invitational manner; option to participate or not 3. introduced in a timely and sensitive manner, abandoned if they don’t work 4. modified so they are suitable for the cultural/ethnic background 5. share reactions to the techniques/activities used
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Multicultural Perspective
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1. must attend to all dimensions of identity 2. be aware of: –power attributed to them by group members –they may symbolize institutions of oppression –be invitational 3. emotional expression may be incompatible with a cultural upbringing and gender role norms
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Western therapeutic models
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1. reflect values: –choice, uniqueness of individual, assertiveness 2. work toward outcomes: –assertive coping skills by changing the environment –learning to manage stress 3. oriented toward individual change
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Non-Western cultures
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1. focus on interdependence 2. play down individuality 3. think of the collective good 4. emphasize healing in the community
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Psychodynamic Approach – Psychoanalysis Key concepts (4)
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1. people are influenced by unconscious motivation & early childhood experiences 2. dynamics of behavior is buried in the unconscious 3. group therapy = length process of analyzing inner conflicts that are rooted in the past 4. long term therapy is a process of restructuring the personality
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Psychoanalysis – Therapeutic Goals (2)
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1. make the unconscious conscious 2. trace the source of the problem and understand how it affects present thought/behavior
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Psychoanalysis – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. leadership styles vary –objectively, warm detachment and relative anonymity –promote collaborative relationship; communicate caring, interest, and involvement with group members
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Psychoanalysis – Techniques (5)
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1. free association 2. interpretation 3. dream analysis 4. analysis of resistance 5. analysis of transference & countertransference
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Alderian Therapy – Key Concepts (6)
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1. people are primarily social beings influenced and motivated by societal forces 2. human beings are creative, active, and decisional 3. focus on understanding the individual’s subjective perspective 4. life goals give direction to behavior 5. inherent feelings of inferiority initiate a natural striving toward achieving a higher level of master & competence in life 6. the style of life consists of our world views about others, the world, and ourselves
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Alderian Therapy – Therapeutic Goals (7)
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1. fostering social interest 2. facilitating a sense of social connectedness 3. develop a sense of wanting to contribute to the welfare of others 4. enhance a sense of identification and empathy with others 5. promote a sense of belongingness with the group 6. counseling is seen as a collaborative effort 7. concerned with challenging client’s mistaken notions and faulty assumptions
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Alderian – Therapeutic Relationship (3)
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1. cooperation, mutual respect, confidence, collaboration, and alignment of goals 2. leader models clear, healthy communication and acting in good faith 3. egalitarian alliance and person-to-person relationships
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Alderian – Techniques (7 and examples)
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1. not bound to a specific set of procedures 2. techniques are client-specific 3. psychoeducational focus 4. present and future oriented 5. brief or time limited 6. members — “act as if” they are already the person they want to be 7. “catching oneself” – helping individuals identify signals associated with their problematic behavior or emotions Examples: attending, providing, confrontation & support, summarizing, gathering life history data, lifestyle analysis, interpretation of experiences, suggestions, offering encouragement, homework, assisting members search for new possibilities
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Characteristics of an Alderian Brief Approach (7)
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1. initial establishment of a therapeutic alliance 2. identifying target problems 3. goal alignment 4. rapid assessment 5 active & directive interventions 6. focus on strengths & resources of members 7. emphasis on the present & future
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Experiential & Relationship-Oriented Approaches – Types
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Existential Therapy Person-centered or Rogerian Gestalt Psychodrama
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Experiential & Relationship-Oriented Approaches – Key Concepts
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1. quality of leader-member encounter in the therapeutic situation is the catalyst for change 2. emphasis on the leader’s ability to establish a climate that fosters authentic interchanges among the members 3. the I-Thou relationship – experience safety necessary for risk taking behavior 4. awareness emerges — genuine meeting between leader and member, or in the context of authentic relating 5. group leader’s role = be present during group time—> self disclosure by the leader
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Existential Approach – Basics
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1. we define ourselves by the choices we make 2. have the capacity for awareness = we are basically free 3. we have responsibility for the choices we make 4. “restricted existence” ~ seeing few if any alternatives for dealing with life situations 5. a group experience can help members recognize outmoded patterns of living and accept responsibility for changing their future
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Existential Approach – Key Concepts
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1. concern to preserve our uniqueness & identity; know ourselves in relation to knowing others 2. we recreate ourselves through projects — life is never fixed once and for all 3. anxiety is part of the human condition 4. death is also a basic human condition
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Existential Approach – Therapeutic Goals
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1. assist the participants in recognizing & accepting the freedom they have to become authors of their own lives 2. group represents the microcosm of the world 3. interpersonal and existential problems become manifest in the here-and-now interactions within the group 4. enable members to discover themselves as they are by sharing their existential concerns
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Existential Approach – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. understanding members’ current experience NOT on using techniques 2. value being fully present 3. create caring relationships with members 4. therapy is a collaborative relationship between leader and member
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Existential Approach – Techniques
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1. adapt interventions to their own personality and style. Pay attention to what the member needs 2. not bound by any specific procedures 3. guided by philosophical framework about what it means to be human
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Existential Approach – Multicultural Applications
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doesn’t impose particular values and meanings; investigates the values & meanings of group members
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Person-Centered Approach – Key Concepts
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1. have the capacity to understand our problems / have resources within us to resolve them 2. focus on the constructive side of human nature / what is right with people 3. provide understanding, genuineness, support, acceptance, caring, and positive regard 4. active role and responsibility of the group member 5. positive & optimistic view / account for a person’s inner & subjective experiences
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Person-Centered Approach – Therapeutic Goals
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1. provide a climate of safety and trust — become aware of blocks to growth 2. minimizes directive techniques, interpretation, questioning, probing, diagnosis, and collecting history 3. identify personally meaningful goals / find way without active and directive structuring from the group leader
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Person Centered Approach – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. relationship-centered rather than technique centered 2. leader creates an accepting & healing climate 3. way of being, not way of doing 4. group leader = facilitator 5. facilitators = instruments of change 6. qualities of facilitator –genuine –non-possessive warmth –accurate empathy –unconditional acceptance/respect for client –caring
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Person-Centered Approach – Techniques
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1. facilitators bring here-and-now reactions to what is occurring in the group 2. open to a variety of personal expressions –poetry, drawing, painting
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Person-Centered – Multicultural Applications
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1. emphasis on universal core values 2. may not work if members expect a more directive leader
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Gestalt – Key Concepts
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1. individuals and their behavior must be understood in the context of their on-going relationship with the present environment 2. leader = support members 3. awareness of the internal world and contact with the external environment 4. change occurs naturally as awareness of what is increases 5. focus is on the here and now 6. unfinished business from the past is explored as if they were happening in the present moment
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Gestalt – Therapeutic Goals
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1. attain awareness and greater choice
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Gestalt – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. focus is NOT on techniques but on who the therapist is as a person and the quality of the relationship 2. attention is on the here-and-now, what and how
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Gestalt – Techniques
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1. create experiments in the here-and-now 2. experiments are the cornerstone of experiential learning 3. experiments to move members from talk to action to experience
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Psychodrama – Key Concepts
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1. show what is happened as if it was happening now 2. reliving and re-experiencing a scene from the past
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Psychodrama – Therapeutic Goals
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1. foster creativity 2. catharsis – release of pent up feelings 3. provide insight 4. develop new and more effective behaviors 5. live in the present / behave more spontaneous 6. open unexplored possibilities for solving conflicts
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Psychodrama – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. focus is on who the therapist is and the quality of the relationship 2. understanding/respecting the member experience 3. importance of the therapeutic relationship as a healing factor
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Psychodrama – Techniques
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1. role play 2. reflect about how decisions may be contributing to the emotional reactions experienced 3. role reversal 4. future projection
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Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches – Types
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1. behavior therapy 2. cognitive therapy 3. rational emotive therapy 4. reality therapy
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Behavior Therapy – Key Concepts
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1. comprehensive assessment to determine the present level of functioning 2. clear and measurable goals 3. empirically supported strategies 4. evaluation – how well procedures and techniques are working
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Behavior Therapy – Therapeutic Goals
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1. increase personal choice 2. create new conditions for learning 3. eliminate maladaptive behaviors and replace them with constructive responses 4. collaboration to specify treatment goals 5. goals are altered as needed
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Behavior Therapy – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. leader = teach concrete skills through instruction, modeling, and performance feedback 2. members = actively involved from beginning to end
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Behavior Therapy – Techniques
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1.assessment/baseline 2. ongoing collection of data to provide continuous feedback Examples 1. role playing 2. homework 3. cognitive restructuring 4. relaxation methods
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Cognitive Therapy – Key Concepts
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1. psychological problems stem from common processes –faulty thinking –incorrect inferences –failing to distinguish between fantasy/reality 2. people can unlearn erroneous, self-defeating thoughts 3. techniques = test the member’s misconceptions and faulty assumptions 4. group leader = teacher —-identify through evaluation 5. develop problem-solving skills 6. collaborative empiricism ~ forming hypotheses and testing assumptions 7. learn new internal dialogue and coping skills
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Cognitive Therapy – Therapeutic Goals
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1. change the way clients think by identifying their automatic thoughts and begin to introduce the idea of cognitive restructuring 2. learn ways to identify their underlying faulty beliefs, evaluate them, and replace them with constructive beliefs
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Cognitive Therapy – Therapeutic Relationship
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1. empathy and sensitivity with technical competence to establish a relationship with members 2. alliance is the first step
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Cognitive Therapy – Techniques
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1. present-centered, psychoeducational, and time limited 2. Socratic Dialogue~ guided discovery and helping members discover their misconceptions 3. new ways of thinking, acting, and feeling 4. relapse prevention 5. create own self-help assignments to keep working on issues
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Rational Emotive – Key Concepts
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1. problems are caused by perceptions 2. recognize and change self-defeating thinking 3. use active and directive procedures 4. get people to think, feel, and act for themselves
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Rational Emotive – Goals
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1. eliminate a self-defeating outlook on life 2. reduce unhealthy emotional responses 3. acquire a more rational and tolerant philosophy
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Rational Emotive – Relationship
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strive to unconditionally accept members and teach members the same
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Rational Emotive – Techniques
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1. examine present beliefs and behavior 2. coping self-statements~ beliefs can be countered by rational, coping statements 3. confront faulty thinking
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Reality Therapy – Key concepts
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1. humans are internally motivated to change 2. make a plan of action to make the changes they want 3. assume personal responsibility and deal with the present
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Reality Therapy – Goals
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1. help people meet their needs for survival, love, and belonging
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Reality Therapy – Relationship
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1. involvement with and concern for group members 2. challenged with the reality and consequences of their actions 3 avoid criticism, don’t accept excuses, doesn’t give up easily on members
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Reality Therapy – Techniques
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1. Counseling environment 2. specific procedures that will lead to change 3. WDEP W=wants D=direction&doing E= evaluation P= planning & commitment 4. creating an action plan
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Postmodern Approach – Types (3)
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1. solution focused therapy 2. narrative therapy 3. feminist therapy
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Solution-Focused – key concepts
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moves form problem-talk to solution-talk and focuses on making therapy simple and brief
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Solution Focused – Relationship
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1. collaborative 2. atmosphere of acceptance and understanding 3. establish clear, specific, realistic treatment and meaningful goals 4. avoid language that embodies diagnosis, assessment, and treatment 5. solution track rather than problem track
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Solution Focused – Techniques
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1. pre-therapy change~ encourage members to rely more on their own resources to reach their goals 2. questions~ better understand experience not just to gather information 3. exception, miracle, scaling
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Narrative Therapy – Goals
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1. find evidence to support a new view of self as being competent 2. use fresh language 3. heightened sense of personal agency
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Narrative Therapy – Relationship
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1. individual = primary interpreter of their own experience 2. leader seeks to understand the lived experience of the individual 3. work collaboratively to explore the impact of the problem and what can be done to reduce effects
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Narrative Therapy – Techniques
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1. externalizing conversations 2. questions 3. problems are ordinary difficulties and challenges of life 4. no formula to follow that will ensure a desired outcome
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Feminist Theory – Key Concepts
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1. focus on issues of diversity, complexity of sexism, and the centrality of social context in understanding gender issues 2. gender role expectations and their effect on life 3. individuals are responsible for working toward change
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Feminist – Goals
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1. empowerment 2. enhancing quality of interpersonal relationships 3. insight, introspection, and self-awareness 4. individual change and social transformation
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Feminist – Relationship
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1. egalitarian 2. empowerment strategies for each client 3. genuineness and mutual respect 4. member is an expert in their own life
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Feminist – Techniques
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1. interventions tailored to client’s strengths 2. gender role analysis 3. power analysis 4. social action
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Integrative Approach
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1. concepts and techniques drawn from various theoretical approaches 2. no single theory is comprehensive enough