Chapter 4: Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

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ABAB designs
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single case designs that observe systematic changes in the participants behavior as the treatment and no treatment conditions alternate. The initial baseline period is followed by a treatment period, a treatment reversal period, and a second treatment period
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analog study
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a study conducted in the lab under conditions that are purportedly analogous to real life
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between group designs
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designs in which 2 or more separate groups of participants each receive a different kind of treatment
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case study method
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a research method consisting of the intensive description or study of one person
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confidentiality
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in research on human subjects, the principle of protecting individual participants from public scrutiny
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confound
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a situation in which extraneous variables are not controlled or cannot be shown exist equally in one experimental and control groups. When there is a confound, one cannot attribute changes in the dependent variable to the manipulation of the independent variable.
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control group
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the group in an experimental design that does not receive the treatment of interest
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controlled observation
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a research method similar to naturalistic observation in which carefully planned observations are made in real life settings, except that the investigator exerts a degree of control over the events being observed
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correlation coefficient
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a statistic that describes the relationship between two variables.
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correlation matrix
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an array that displays the correlations between all possible pairs of varaibles
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correlational methods
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statistical methods that allow us to determine whether one variable is related to another.
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cross sectional design
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a research design that compares different groups of individuals at one point in time
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debriefing
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in research on human subjects, the legal requirement that researchers explain to participants the purpose, importance, and results of the research following their participation
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deception
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sometimes used in research when knowing the true purpose of a study would change the participants responses or produce non-veridical data
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dependent variable
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the variable being measured or affected by the independent variable
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double blind procedure
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a procedure for circumventing the effects of experimenter or participant expectations. Neither the experimenter or the participant know who is receiving what treatment
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epidemiology
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the study of the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of illness or disease in a given population
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expectations
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what the investigator or the research participant anticipates about the experimental outcome
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experimental group
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the group in an experimental design hat receive the treatment of interest
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experimental hypothesis
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the theory or proposal on which an experimental study is based.
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experimental method
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a research strategy that allows the researcher to determine cause and effect relationships between variables
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external validity
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results are generalizable beyond the narrow scope of the study
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factor
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hypothesized dimension underlying an interrelated set of variables
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factor analysis
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a statistical method for examining the interrelationships among a number of variables at the same time. Uses many separate correlations to determine which variables change together and this may have some underlying dimension in common
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fradulant data
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data that are fabricated, altered, or otherwise falsified by the experimenter
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incidence
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the rate of new cases of a disease or disorder that develop within a given period time.
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independent variable
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the variable being manipulated by the experimenter
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informed consent
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the legal requirement that researchers inform potential participants about the general purpose of the study, the procedures that will be used, any risks, discomforts, or limitations on confidentiality, any compensation for participation, and their freedom to withdraw from the study at any point
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internally valid
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any change in the dependent variable is attributable to the independent variable
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longitudinal design
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compares the same group of individuals at 2 or more points in time
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matching
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a term used when research participants in the experimental and control groups are matched
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mixed designs
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designs that combine both experimental and correlational methods
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multiple baseline design
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designs used when it is not possible or ethical to employ a treatment reversal period. In this design, baselines are established for 2 or more behaviors, treatment is introduced for one behavior, and then treatment is introduced for the second behavior as well
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naturalistic observation
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method in which carefully made observations are made in real life settings
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placebo effect
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the case where the expectations for the experimental manipulation cause the outcome rather than the manipulation itself
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prevalence
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the overall rate of cases (new or old) within a given period of time
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retrospective data
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data based upon peoples reports of past experiences and events
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risk factor
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a variable that increases of persons risk of experiencing a particular disease or disorder over his or her life
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scatterplot
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visual representation of the relationship between two variables
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single case designs
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designs that focus on the responses of only one participant
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statistical significance
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statistical values that would not be expected to occur solely on the basis s of chance. Usually less than 5 times out of 100
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third variable problem
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the possibility that a correlation between variables A and B is due to the influence of an unknown third variable
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within group designs
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designs in which the same group of participants is compared at different points in time (before and after a treatment)

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