Chapter 30 check points & chapter assessment

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How was Europe divided and what were three consequences of its division?
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Europe was divided into democratic and communist regions. As a result, the Berlin Wall was built, uprisings occurred in Eastern Europe, and the “Prague Spring” was crushed.
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What factors discouraged the use of nuclear weapons during the Cold War?
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Neither side wanted to start a destructive war that would devastate both sides. Both sides eventually signed treaties to limit nuclear weapons.
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How did the U.S. and the Soviet Union confront each other around the world during the Cold War?
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The two nations confronted each other militarily, by supporting opposing sides in local conflicts, and politically, by assembling opposing alliances.
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How did the Soviet government handle critics of its policies?
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The Soviet government arrested and imprisoned critics of its policies.
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How did America respond to the threat of communism at home and overseas?
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The United States sought to remove communist influences at home and sought to contain Soviet power overseas.
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What kinds of conflicts resulted from the global confrontation between the two superpowers?
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Tense struggles for influence developed in many parts of the world; a few of these flared into actual military conflicts.
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How did the buildup of nuclear weapons discourage their use?
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It made each side in the Cold War resist using weapons for fear of unleashing devastating nuclear attack.
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Identify similarities and differences between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.
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Both nations feared each other and both tried to influence other nations to share their views. The U.S. experienced freedom, economic prosperity, and anxiety over communism.
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How was the U.S. economy linked to the broader global economy during the Cold War?
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The U.S. economy relied on sales in overseas markets. It also needed oil produced overseas, so it suffered when oil prices rose in the 1970s.
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Over time, how did the U.S. government expand opportunities for Americans?
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The U.S. government stepped in to end segregation and discrimination; to improve life for veterans, the elderly, and the poor; and to expand transportation and housing opportunities.
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What were some advantages and disadvantages of the welfare state in Europe?
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Advantages: expanded social benefits such as old-age pensions and unemployment insurance. Disadvantages: higher taxes and greater government regulations, or control of industry.
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What factors explain Japan’s economic success in the decades after World War II?
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Japan’s economic success was due to U.S. military protection and economic assistance, the opportunity to build modern industries after wartime destruction, an educated and skilled workforce, a strong export market, and government regulation of industry and imports.
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How did Democrats and Republicans differ on the best ways to improve opportunity for Americans?
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Democrats believed in expanding social programs, while Republicans believed in reducing the size of government.
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How was the economic development of Western Europe during the Cold War years similar to or different of Japan?
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Japan and much of Western Europe gained prosperity by building modern industries after wartime destruction. While Japan focused on producing goods for export, Western Europe developed strong social benefit programs.
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How was trade important to the economic development of Western Europe, the United States, and Japan during the post war decades?
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Because of international trade, all of their economies grew.
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What were the main successes and failures of the Chinese Communist Revolution?
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China’s main success were improved public infrastructure and somewhat improved public hygiene. The Revolution’s main failure were the purges of intellectuals, the failure of the Great Leap Forward, and inadequate progress in improving productivity.
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How did China’s relationships with the Soviet Union and the United States change during the Cold War?
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China’s relationship with the Soviet Union deteriorated during the Cold War because of rivalries over ideology and borders. China’s relationship with the United States improved as the Cold War progressed, because the U.S. saw China as a useful parter in its conflict its the Soviet Union.
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Explain when and why China became involved in the Korean War.
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China got involved in the Korean War when it felt treated by UN forces on its borders. China wanted to help the Communist North Koreans.
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How did North Korea’s economic performance compare to South Korea’s?
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North Korea’s economic performance was dismal compared with the property experienced in South Korea.
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What ideologies did Mao’s programs to transform China reflect?
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They reflected on opposition to “bourgeois” property owners and a belief in totalitarian state control.
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How did the United States use the changing relationship between China and the Soviet Union to its own advantage?
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The U.S. improved ties with China in order to isolate the Soviet Union
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How might the history of Korea have been different if the United Nations forces had not stepped in to oppose the North Korean invasion in 1950?
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Without the United Nation’s involvement communist aggression might have succeeded in Korea entirely and the nation would not now be divided.
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Why did Vietnamese guerrillas fight the French in Indochina?
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Vietnamese guerrillas fought the French in an effort to win independence.
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How did the domino theory lead the United States to send troops to Vietnam?
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The Unites States believed that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause communism to spread across Southeast Asia. The United States entered the Vietnam war to prevent this.
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Why did the United States withdraw its troops from Vietnam?
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The U.S. withdrew from Vietnam because it wasn’t winning and it faced tremendous pressure from citizens at home who opposed American involvement in the war.
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How did communist Vietnam dominate parts of Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War?
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Communist Vietnam invaded and dominated both Cambodia and Laos after the Vietnam War.
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Why did the French withdraw from Indochina in the 1950s?
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They were losing the battle against guerrilla forces led by Ho Chi Minh.
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How did a local struggle in Vietnam become a major Cold War conflict?
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The United States entered the war on South Vietnam’s side to stop the spread of communism, while the Soviet Union and China supported communist North Vietnam.
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What different opinions did Americans have about U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War?
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Many Americans felt it was a quagmire and that America should withdraw. Others felt America needed to stay in Southeast Asia to avoid the spread of communism.
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When the text states that “dominos fell” after the Vietnam War, what does this mean?
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Some nations in Southeast Asia fell under communist rule.
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How did Gorbachev’s policies lead to a new map of Europe and Asia?
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Gorbachev’s policies led to the weakening of centralized communist power in the Soviet Union. As a result, countries under the Soviet domination broke free, and the republics of the USSR separated into 15 independent nations.
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How did glasnost in the Soviet Union lead to the end of communism in Eastern Europe?
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Glasnost in the Soviet Union led to a loosening of Soviet control over Eastern Europe and to greater ability for Eastern European nations to openly resist and criticize Soviet rule.
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How did communist countries react differently to the collapse of the Soviet bloc?
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Cuba and North Korea remained committed to communism and command economies. Vietnam and China moved toward market economies, but remained communist.
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Why did America’s position as the sole superpower produce mixed reactions?
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Some nations felt that America was overstepping its powers by acting as the world’s policeman. Others were comforted by its power as a protector of freedom.
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Why was the Soviet Union unable to keep up with the market economies of the West?
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Central control was cumbersome. Workers lacked incentive.
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How did Gorbachev’s reforms lead to the breakup of the Soviet empire?
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Gorbachev instituted reforms that allowed for criticism of the government and an increase in private enterprise. Reforms encouraged opposition to the Soviet system and a new market economy.
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Why were Eastern Europeans able to break free of communist governments and Soviet domination in the late 1980s?
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In the late 1980s, Gorbachev said that the Soviet Union would not interfere
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How did the collapse of the Soviet Union affect the power of other countries around the world?
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America emerged as the world’s sole superpower.

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