Chapter 3 speech quiz

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Language
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A collection of symbols letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate
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Decode
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the process of assigning meaning to others’ words in order to translate them into thoughts of your own
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Semantics
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the study of the way humans use language to evoke meaning in others
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Syntax
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the way in which words are arranged to form phrases and sentences
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Encode
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the process of translating your thoughts into words
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Phatic Communication
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Communication that is used to establish a mood of sociability rather than to communicate information or ideas
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Culture
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the socially transmitted behavior patterns, beliefs, attitudes, and values of a particular period, class, community, or population
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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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a theory that our perception of reality is determined by our thought processes, our thought processes are limited by our language, and therefore that language shapes our reality
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Denotative meaning
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the agreed upon meaning or dictionary meaning of the word
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Connotative meaning
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an individualized or personalized meaning of a word, which may be emotionally laden
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Slang
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Informal, casual street language used among equals with words unsuitable for more formal contexts
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Cliche
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an expression that has lost originality and force through overuse
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Euphemism
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a more polite, pleasant expression used instead of a socially unacceptable form
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Profanity
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Language that is disrespectful of things sacred
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Jargon
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Language particular to a specific profession, work group, or culture and not meant to be understood by outsiders
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regionalisms
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words and phrases specific to a particular region or part of the country
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sexist language
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language that excludes individuals on the basis of gender
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Racist language
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language that insults a group because of its skin color or ethnicity
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heterosexist language
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language that implies that everyone is heterosexual
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Ageist language
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language that denigrates people for being young or old
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descriptiveness
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the practice of describing observed behavior or phenomena instead of offering personal reactions or judgements
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paraphrasing
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restating another person’s message by rephrasing the content or intent of the message
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operational definition
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a definition that identifies something by revealing how it works, how it is made, or what it consists of
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concrete language
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words and statements that are specific rather than abstract or vague
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dating
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specifying when you made an observation, since everything changes over time
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frozen evaluation
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an assessment of a concept that does not change over time
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indexing
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identifying the uniqueness of objects, events, and people
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Pragmatics
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the study of language as it is used in a social context, including its effect on the communicators

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