Chapter 3 Psych

Ernest Weber provided a formulation that is used to determine the ______________.
change in smallest detectable difference between two stimuli

Suppose Maria is painting while the sun is setting; once she notices that the room is getting darker, she decides to call it quits for the day. This example illustrates the role of ________.
a just-noticeable difference

An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to _____________.
olfactory bulb

People’s tendency to perceive a thing a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations influence them is called _______________.
perceptual expectancy

Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become ______.
less detailed in the distance

If you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper, you will see a greenish image of the object. This phenomenon BEST supports the ______ theory of color vision.
opponent-process

What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?
tiny bones located in the middle ear

The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as _____________.
size constancy

The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ______.
absolute threshold

Which is the best description of the kinesthetic sense?
It has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.

Which of the following is true of rods?
They are responsible for night vision.

Flavor arises from:
taste and smell

When Bill looks at his lamp alternately with his left eye and right eye, the image seems to jump from one position to another. This phenomenon illustrates ______.
binocular disparity

All of the following are true about color blindness except:
It seems to be more common in women than men.

What are the five primary tastes?
bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami

The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to come together at one point is called ______.
linear perspective

Why do researchers believe color deficiencies often have genetic causes?
More males than females suffer from color deficiencies.

The difference threshold is defined as the degree of change in a stimulus level that is required in order for a person to detect a change __________ of the time.
50 percent

Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of the neurotransmitters called ____________, the body’s natural version of morphine.
endorphins

Which of the following is true about cones?
They are found mainly in the center of the eye.

Proximity is the tendency _________________.
to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called ______.
binocular cues

The idea that pain signals must pass through a type of “doorway” in the spinal cord is referred to as the ______________.
gate-control theory of pain

The ability to see the world in three dimensions is called ________.
depth perception

Activation of the receptors by stimuli is called ________.
sensation

The process by which unchanging information from the senses of taste, touch, smell, and vision is “ignored” by the sensory receptor cells themselves is called __________________.
sensory adaptation

One problem with Vicary’s study of subliminal perception is that _______________.
it never happened

Figure-ground relationships concern _________________.
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background

The vestibular senses are concerned with ________________.
movement and body position

Somasthetic senses involve all of the following except ________.
taste

Closure is the tendency _________________.
to complete figures that are incomplete

______ is the mental process of making meaning of sensory information.
perception

A person can have between ____________ taste buds in his or her mouth.
500 to 10,000

Some people believe that _______ are messages that can be sent to consumers, prompting them to buy a product without their being aware of receiving such messages.
subliminal stimuli

Which of the following occurs when because one object appears to be blocking another object, the viewer assumes that the blocked object is farther away?
overlap