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Chapter 22 Progressive Era

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Patronage
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-practice of giving jobs to loyal supporters
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Civil service
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-all federal jobs except elected positions in the army forces
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Muckrakers-
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journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
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Progressives
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-reformers who wanted to improve American life in the late 1800s and early 1900s
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Graduated income tax
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-tax on earning that charges different rates for different income levels
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Primary-
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election in which voters choose their party’s candidate for the general election
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Trustbuster-
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person who wanted to end all trusts
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Conservation-
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protection of natural resources
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National park
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-natural or historical area set aside and run by the federal government for people to visit
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Suffragist-
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person who campaigned for women’s rights
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16th Amendment-
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gave congress the power to impose and income tax
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17th Amendment-
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direct election of senators
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18th Amendment-
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made illegal to sell alcoholic drinks anywhere in the US
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19th Amendment-
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granted women the right to vote
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Merit
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ability
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Civil service-
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all federal jobs except elected office and those in the military
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Political boss-
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powerful politician who controls work done locally and demands payoffs from business
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Muckraker
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-journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
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Primary
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– gave voters the opportunity to choose their party’s candidates
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Initiative-
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gave voters a way to put a bill directly before a state legislature
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Referendum-
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gave voters the chance to put a bill on the ballot and vote it into law
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Recall-
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let voters remove an elected official from office
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Trustbusters-
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a person who wanted to destroy all trusts
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Conservation
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protection of natural resources
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National Parks-
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area set aside by the federal government for people to visit
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Suffragist-
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people working for women’s rights to vote
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Gilded Age
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-from 1870s to 1890s, reformers tried to clean up political corruption
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Chester A. Arthur-
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forbade trusts and other businesses from limiting competition
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Civil Service Commission-
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conduct exams for government jobs
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Interstate Commerce Commission
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Banned or forbade certain practices, such as, rebates and pools
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Sherman Antitrust Act-
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law that banned or prevented the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
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William Tweed-
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Corrupt New York City boss
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Progressive-
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Reformers who wanted to improve American like
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Theodore Roosevelt
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-Progressive President known as the “Trustbuster”
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Square Deal-
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Roosevelt’s campaign promise that all Americans would have the same opportunity to succeed
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Pure Food and Drug Act-
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Requires food and drug makers to list ingredients on package
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William Howard Taft
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-Progressive President who favored the graduated income tax; made an eight-hour workday for government workers
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Bull Moose Party-
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Progressive Republican party that supported Roosevelt in the 1912 election
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Pendleton Act
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created the Civil Service commission to make sure that only qualified people got federal jobs
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Woodrow Wilson
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-Progressive President who helped create the FTC; signed the Clayton Antitrust Act
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Federal Reserve Act-
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set up a system of federal banks
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Federal Trade Commission –
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Investigates companies and prevents them from using unfair practices to destroy competitors
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National Woman Suffrage Association
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-worked for a constitutional amendment allowing women to vote
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Carrie Chapman Catt-
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leader of the National Woman Suffrage Association
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Alice Paul-
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suffragist who was jailed for picketing the White House
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Nineteenth Amendment-
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guaranteed women the right to vote
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Carrie Nation-
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radical temperance crusader to dedicate to life to fighting “demon rum”
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Eighteenth Amendment
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-made it illegal to sell alcoholic drinks in the United States
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What two political concerns shaped politics during the Gilded Age?
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The spoil system and the lack of regulation of big business
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What reforms were made to end the spoils system?
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President Hayes investigated the New York customhouse. The Pendleton Act set up the Civil Service Commission to conduct exams for federal jobs.
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Describe two new laws that tried to limit the power of big business?
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The Interstate Commerce Act forbade certain practices, such as, rebates and pools. Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal for companies to restrict competition.
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How did political bosses corrupt city governments?
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They sometimes took payoffs from businesses and stole public funds and they often used their power to influence officeholders.
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How did the muckrakers help change public opinion?
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Muckrakers used their journalistic skills to expose social ills; by doing so, they shocked middle-class Americans, who responded by demanding change.
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Explain three major goals of Progressive reformers.
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Limit the power of big business End political corruption Solve social ills Give voters more power
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Describe two Progressive reforms that increased the political power of voters.
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The primary gave voters the opportunity to choose their party’s candidates. The initiative gave voters a way to put a bill directly before a state legislature. The referendum gave voters the chance to put a bill on the ballot and vote it into law. The recall let voters remove an elected official from office.
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Describe three accomplishments of Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal.
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Did away with some bad trusts Worked to regulate railroads Supported laws strengthening inspection procedures for food Put limits on lumbering
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Why did opposition to Taft grow among reformers?
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Taft raised tariffs, which angered Progressives. He was accused of blocking conservation efforts
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Why did the Republican Party split in the 1912 election?
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Taft lost the support of the Progressives over tariff and conservation issues. Roosevelt and the Progressives split off from Taft and the mainstream Republican Party.
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Name two accomplishments of Woodrow Wilson as President.
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Setting up the FTC Lowering the tariffs Regulating banking Encouraging competition
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Describe three highlights in the campaign to win women’s suffrage through the constitutional amendment.
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Women first organized a movement as early as 1848 They formed a group to amend the Constitution They called on the Presidents to support their movement; They picketed the White House Congress passed the 19th Amendment, which was ratified in 1920
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What new opportunities in jobs and education did women win during this period?
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Women managed to attain higher education and earn degrees, but it was a struggle to be able to practice law or medicine.
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Why were women active in the crusade against alcohol?
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They saw how alcohol created hardships in the home and destroyed families. They also opposed saloons, centers of political deal-making from which they usually were banned.
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What reasons the Progressives turned against President William Howard Taft?
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He fired a Forest Service official in a dispute over the sale of wilderness lands and he raised tariffs on imported goods.
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Reformers in the Gilded Age criticized the spoil system because it
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spread corruption.
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What was one effect of corruption on city government?
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Bribery became a common way of doing business.
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What were concerns that shaped politics during the Gilded Age?
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bribery, patronage, and voter fraud.
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Who would have been helped by the creation of the Civil Service Commission?
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qualified applicants for government jobs.
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Why was the name muckrakers given to some members of the press during the Progressive Era?
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because they worked to change public opinion.
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How did women win the right to vote?
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Fifty years of effort by suffragist secured approval of the Nineteenth Amendment.