Chapter 22 & Chapter 23 of US History 1302

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Bonus Army
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WWII veterans that were seeking early payment of a pension bonus for their service
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Eleanor Roosevelt
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Franklin D. Roosevelt’s wife and a big supporter of the civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws and she also worked for birth control and better working conditions for women.
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New Deal
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The historic deal between (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which president Roosevelt’s new policies were implemented. The new deal included Social Security, Banking insurance and other programs that benefited the citizens of the united states.
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Fireside Chats
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During the Great Depression President Roosevelt used the radio to communicate with the people of the United States. He used plain language to explain complex issues so that everyone could understand what he was saying. This made the people of the United States trust the government more.
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Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
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Employed 3 million men between the ages of 18-25 to work on public projects that benefited the communities.
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National Industrial Recovery Administration(NIRA)
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Law enacted in 1933 that established fair industrial practice and promoted industrial growth.
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Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
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Raised farm prices by restricting output of staple crops it also gave money to farms to pay the mortgages of their homes.
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Banking Act of 1933
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Allowed inspection of banking record and let those banks strong enough to survive to reopen and those who weren’t closed down.
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Upton Sinclair
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Muckraker who published the book “The Jungle” a book about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
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Huey P. Longthe
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Louisiana governor that wanted to improve the lives of poor people so he improved education, medical care, and public services. Founder of the “Share-Our-Wealth” program. Limited the income of people to 1 million and inheritance to 5 million.
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Charles Coughlin
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A Catholic priest from Michigan who was Anti-New Deal and harangues in 1930 so anti-semitic, fascist, demagogic so he was silenced by his superiors.
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Schechter Poultry Corp v. United States(how did it affect the new deal)
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A.K.A. “The Sick Chicken Disease” declared unconstitutional parts of the NIRA that gave the president some of congress’s right to regulate commerce
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Works Progress Administration (WPA)
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Employed millions of unskilled Americans to carry out public jobs such as building schools and roads.
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Social Security Act of 1935
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Created an insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employer throughout their careers. They would receive monthly money once they reached the age of 65.
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Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
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Law that established the minimum requirements hours, wages, and premium overtime, and payroll records
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Roosevelts Court-Packing
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Roosevelt proposed in 1937 to add an additional justice for every judge over the age of 30. Following the action that many judges took down New Deal laws and he also said that many of the old judges were out of touch with the nation’s needs. Congress declined Roosevelt’s proposal because they said that it endangered the court’s independence.
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Keynesianism
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Deficit spending was okay because the government had to spend money way over the tax revenue to initiate economic growth.
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Good Neighbor Policy
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Withdrawal of American troops in foreign nations to help improve international relation and unite the western hemisphere.
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Five Powers Treaty
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Established in 1922 at the Washington Disarmament Conference. It embodied Hugh’s 5-3 ratio for navies. Britain and America conceded that they would not fortify their far east possessions but the Japanese weren’t subject to this.
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Kellog-Briand Pact
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in 1928 representatives of 62 nations signed a pact to outlaw war. It was initiated by the French foreign minister Aristide Briand. Briand wanted an agreement whereby 2 countries would never go to war against each other as a ploy to draw the US into a French security system. It would mean that if France ever violated the US’s neutral shipping rights, the US would not be able to declare war.
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Fascism
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A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government. Dictator.
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Adolf Hitler
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Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers’ Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933.
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Emperor Hirohito
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Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II.
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Mukden Incident of 1931
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Japanese occupation in Manchuria, a vast contested region in Northeast Asia began with the Mukden incident of 1931, when an explosion destroyed a section of a railroad track near the city. The Japanese army based in Manchuria to guard the railway blamed the incident on the Chinese
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Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937
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Japanese and Chinese clash here, Japan takes over Beijing and more, Jiang moves China’s government up river to get away.
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Munich Agreement of 1938
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The Munich Agreement was held in Munich Germany on the 29th September 1938. Germany,Britain, Italy and France attended, but the Czech leader Edward Benes was not allowed. The four powers agreed to give the Sudetenland to Germany, the Czechs had to agree. On the 1st of October 1938, German troops took over the Sudetenland, and Hitler made a promise to Chamberlain this would be his last demand.
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Tripartite Pact
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Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US.
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Blitzkrieg
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German term meaning “lightning war”, used to describe Germany’s novel military tactics in World War II, which involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over large areas.
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Neutrality Acts
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an act passed to limit US involvement in possible future wars.
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Roosevelts Four Freedom
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The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
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‘Arsenal for Democracy’
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FDR’s justification for lending weapons to the British to fight the Nazis in what was known as the Lend Lease Act.
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“Cash and Carry” policy
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policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
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America First Committee
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Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus on continental defense and non-involvement with the European war
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Lend Lease Act
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On 11th March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers.
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The Atlantic Charter
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Anglo-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security. Between FDR and Winston Churchill.
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“Four Freedoms”
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Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941
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Pearl Harbor Attack
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An attack by the Japanese Aircraft to America on December 7, 1941.
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Office of War Information
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established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep americans united behind the war effort.
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Fair Employment Practices Committee
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FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
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Rosie The Riveter
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A model dressed in overalls who became the cover girl for the intense publicity campaign that was launched by the government to draw women into traditional male jobs.
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Double V Campaign
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Black-Americans’ campaign to earn victory in the home front (fight discrimination at home) and victory overseas (fighting the enemy Axis powers)
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Zoot Suit Riots
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The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that broke out in Los Angeles, California, between Anglo American sailors and Marines stationed in the city, and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored.
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Japanese-American Internment
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The interments happened because the U.S government was scared that the Japanese Americans were spies.
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Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944(G.I.Bill)
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The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
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Operation Overlord-D-Day
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turning point in the war; day of invasion of Normandy – June 6, 1944; over 9,000 soldiers died
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Battle of Stalingrad
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a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture an industrial port city on the Volga River in the Soviet Union; one of the most deadly battles of wwii; crushing defeat for Germany
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Battle of the Bulge
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1. This was a battle in the winter of 1944-1945 between the Germans and Allied forces on the western front. 2. This war was one of the last before the surrender of Germany. It was Hitler’s last effort to repel the invading forces. It was the single largest bloodiest battle American forces experienced, with 19,000 deaths.
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Battle of Berlin
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16 February-2 May 1945. The Soviet army overwhelm the German defences with sheer manpower and armour. Around 200 000 people died on both sides and the war in Europe was over.
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Bataan Death March
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April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 60 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.
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The Holocaust
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The systematic mass slaughter of Jews and other groups judged inferior by the Nazis
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“Leapfrogging” or “Island hopping” strategy
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refers to the tactic of the US forces in WWII that involved sinking Japanese troopships and warships bringing reinforcements, thereby neutralizing Japanese strongholds and moving on, leaving them to die on the vine. It was a major factor contributing to the Allied victory. he new strategy of island hopping called for bypassing some of the most heavily fortified Japanese posts, capturing nearby islands, setting up airfields on them, and then neutralizing the enemy bases through heavy bombing.
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Battle of Midway
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An enormous battle that raged for four days near the small American outpost at Midway Island, at the end of which the US, despite great losses, was clearly victorious. The American navy destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers and lost only one of its own; the action regained control of the central Pacific for the US.
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Battle of Leyte Gulf
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1944 World War II naval battle between the United States and Japan in which the U.S. retake the Philippines and Japanese navy was defeated.
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Battle of Okinawa
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First Japanese Home island (only 350 miles from mainland Japan) to be invaded. Island of immense strategic value. Involving over 500,000 troops and over 1,200 ships. Battle showed Japanese determination to resist invasion. Am’s lost over 12,000 lives and Jap’s over 100,000 defenders. it lasted 3 months and the Allies won.
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Kamikaze
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Japanese pilot trained in World War II to make a suicidal crash attack, especially upon a ship.
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The Manhattan Project
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A program to design, build and detonate a nuclear weapon
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Horishima, Nagasaki Bombings
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The bomb was dropped on the 6th of August 1945. It was named ‘Little Boy’.
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“The Big Three”
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Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George, George Clemenceau
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Yalta Agreement
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fascist governments should be replaced and free elections should be held as soon as possible
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Potsdam Conference
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meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Truman to discuss post-WWII; compromise: each side would take reparations from its own occupation zone, divided up GER, created Council of Foreign Ministers; marked the end of wartime alliance
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Dwight Eisenhower
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He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of 1942.He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944). He ran for the Republican ticket in the 1952 and the 1956 elections and won. He was very well liked by the public.
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George Patton
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General in the United States Army who helped lead the Allies to victory in the Battle of the Bulge.
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Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
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From 1945 to 1952 Japan was under Allied military occupation, headed by the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers (SCAP), a position held by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur until 1951. Although nominally directed by a multinational Far Eastern Commission in Washington, D.C., and an Allied Council in Tokyo—which included the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and the Commonwealth countries—the occupation was almost entirely an American affair. While MacArthur developed a large General Headquarters in Tokyo to carry out occupation policy, supported by local “military government” teams, Japan, unlike Germany, was not governed directly by foreign troops. Instead, SCAP relied on the Japanese government and its organs, particularly the bureaucracy, to carry out its directives.

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