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Chapter 2 – Space

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1. What did the builders of Stonehenge accomplish? a. They demonstrated that some natural events are predictable. b. They figured out the momentum of the Solar System. c. They established contact with ancient astronauts. d. They maintained written records of natural events. e. They accomplished none of the above.
answer

a
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2. Ockham’s razor is a(n) a. instrument of Mayan torture. b. philosophy advocating the simplest solutions. c. constellation in the southern hemisphere. d. example of pseudoscience. e. tool used in raising Stonehenge lintel stones.
answer

b
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3. Dr. John Snow’s research and observations improved the lives of London’s citizens in the 1800s by a. improving the quality of the drinking water. b. finding a cure for cholera. c. diagnosing tuberculosis in the Royal family. d. associating disease with polluted water. e. identifying the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae.
answer

d
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4. The Greek astronomers’ explanation for the celestial spheres did not encompass the phenomenon of a. geocentricism. b. planetary motion. c. a solar system. d. retrograde motion. e. a solar eclipse.
answer

c
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5. The Ptolemaic theory of the universe includes a. an unmoving Earth at the center. b. an unmoving Sun at the center. c. elliptical orbits. d. stationary planets. e. no explanation about the Sun’s movement
answer

a
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6. Copernicus hypothesized that a. the Sun was the center of the universe. b. the Earth was the center of the universe. c. the planetary bodies had circular orbits. d.a & c e. b & c
answer

d
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7. The 17th century laws of planetary motion stated that a. all planets orbit in circular paths. b. the Earth is the center of the universe. c. all planets orbit in oval paths. d. solar system bodies are structured as spheres within spheres. e. a planet’s velocity is constant during its orbit around the Sun.
answer

c
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8. Which scientist would have been most likely to use the phrases “equal areas,” “planetary period,” and “elliptic foci”? a. Tycho Brahe b. Johannes Kepler c. Nicolas Copernicus d. Claudius Ptolemy e. Galileo Galilei
answer

b
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9. Which of the following can happen to an astronaut during liftoff? a. bones and muscles collapse b. nerve damage may occur c. body fluids are stabilized d. blood is temporarily drained from the brain e. all of the above
answer

d
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10. “Eighty miles per hour toward the northeast” is an example of a. acceleration. b. uniform motion. c. rate. d. velocity. e. speed.
answer

d
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11. Stepping on the brakes of a moving car is an example of a. rate. b. gravity. c. velocity. d. acceleration. e. speed.
answer

d
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12. A car going around a racetrack at constant speed a does not accelerate. b. does accelerate. c. is acted upon by inverse forces. d. is not acted upon by forces. e. is an example of compound motion.
answer

b
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13. The path taken by an object thrown upward at the Earth’s surface is a. a parabola. b. a straight line. c. a hyperbola. d. an ellipse. e. a circle
answer

b
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14. Which difficulty did Galileo encounter when trying to study falling objects? a. measuring time in units less than seconds b. lack of funding c. measuring distance in units less than centimeters d. an edict banning research in astronomy e. building the apparatus
answer

a
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15. To calculate the gravitational force between two objects, we need all the following except a. acceleration of both objects. b. mass of the first object. c. mass of the second object. d. gravitational constant. e. distance between the two objects.
answer

a
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16. Calculate the rate of acceleration for a car that reaches a speed of three meters per second in ten seconds. a. 3 meters per second b. 3 m/s2 c. 0.15 meter per second d. 0.3 meters per second e. 30 m/s2
answer

e
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17. Which explains the Law of Universal Gravitation? a. force = (G X mass X Me)/Re2 b.gravitational force on an object on earth is relative to its size and mass c.gravitational force between two objects never equals zero d. all of the above e. none of the above
answer

d
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18. If a ball is thrown upward with an initial velocity of 90.0 m/s, then, when it falls, its downward velocity a. is equal to 180 m/s. b. is equal to 90 m/s. c. equals its upward velocity at any given horizontal location. d. is equal to -90 m/s. e. cannot be computed with these data.
answer

c
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19. The astronomical model placing the Sun at the center of the solar system was resisted for hundreds of years because a. scientific instruments needed to measure astronomical distances with precision had not been invented. b. errors in calculations of data analysis went undetected. c. most scholarly texts were written in Latin. d. the Catholic Church banned all discussions of Copernican ideas. e. all of the above
answer

a
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20. Which of the following is in uniform motion? a. a kite dancing on the wind b. a rocket as it blasts off from the launch pad c. an Olympic skier winding through a slalom course d. a high diver spinning in the air e. a train traveling west at 70 mph
answer

e
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21. Newton’s three laws of motion include the idea that a. for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. b. the less massive an object, the more force is required to overcome inertia. c. every object falls differently. d. the acceleration produced on a body by a force is inversely proportional to the amount of force applied to the body. e. there is no gravity in space.
answer

a
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22. An 80-kilogram sprinter can run up to 10 meters per second. How much force is needed to accelerate this sprinter from the starting blocks to a maximum speed in a half second? a. 16 newtons b. 40 newtons c. 400 newtons d. 1600 newtons e. unable to calculate with data provided
answer

d
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23. Linear momentum is a quantity that is equal to the a. difference between an object’s mass and velocity. b. sum of an object’s mass x velocity. c. product of an object’s mass x velocity. d. gravitational force x velocity. e. the reciprocal of an object’s mass x velocity.
answer

c
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24. Newton recognized two kinds of motion–uniform motion and acceleration. t or f
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true
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25. Galileo demonstrated that on Earth’s surface heavy objects fall at the same rate as light objects. t or f
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true
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26. Tycho Brahe is remembered for his design and use of astronomical instruments. t or f
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true
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27. According to Kepler, the Sun is not at the center of the solar system. t or f
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false
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28. Kepler’s three laws gave scientists insight into the mechanism of solar system operation. t or f
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false
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29. The terms weight and mass are interchangeable. t or f
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false
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30. Scientists believe that the gravitational constant varies on different planets. t or f
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false
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31. The law of conservation of momentum states that momentum will not change. t or f
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false
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32. Newton calculated Earth’s gravitational acceleration to be 9.8 m/s2. t or f
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true
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36. If the Moon were positioned twice as far from the Earth as it is now, the gravitational attraction would be a. twice as great. b. four times as great. c. one-fourth as great. d. the same as it is now. e. one-half as great.
answer

c
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37. Acceleration due to gravity a. is a universal constant. b. is a fundamental property. c. decreases with increasing altitude. d. is different for different objects in free fall. e. Only occurs on earth
answer

c
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38. The force pair of Newton’s third law a. never produce an acceleration. b. act on different objects. c. cancel each other. d. exist only for internal forces. e. are more prevalent if gravity is low.
answer

b
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39. In the absence of a net force an object a. is at rest. b. has zero speed. c. has zero acceleration. d. has terminal velocity e. all but b.
answer

e
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40. Which of these statements is not true about Copernicus? a. He hypothesized that planetary orbits were circular. b. He believed that Ptolemy’s ideas about the shape of orbits were correct. c. He provided the first serious alternative to Ptolemy’s system. d.His model of the universe placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center. e. He used a telescope to confirm his theories.
answer

e
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41. A rock held above the floor but not dropped is an example of which of Newton’s Laws? a. The velocity is constant in the absence of a net force. b. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the net force acting on the object. c. When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first object. d. Both a and c e. None of the above
answer

d
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42. According to Newton’s laws a.applying a force will change the motion of an object. b.momentum is zero if there are no forces added from outside the system. c.fireworks demonstrate a momentum of zero at their highest point in the explosion. d.solar system bodies have attractive forces acting on each other. e.all of the above
answer

e
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43. Which of these does not follow from Newton’s laws? a. It’s harder to stop a rolling car than a rolling bicycle. b. A rock falling from 100 feet has a lower velocity than a rock falling from 50 feet. c. A hunter feels a recoil when he fires his rifle. d. All of the above follow from Newton’s laws. e. None of the above follow from Newton’s laws.
answer

b
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44. Which is an example of the law of compound motion? a. dropping a penny from the Empire State Building b. throwing the first pitch in the American League’s new baseball season c. kicking a field goal for winning points d. an acorn falling from a tree e. b & c
answer

e
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45. At which of these locations is the pull of gravity towards the center of the Earth likely to be the weakest? a. Earth’s surface b. Moon’s surface c. in Earth’s upper atmosphere d. on Mars e. The pull of gravity is equally strong in each place.
answer

d
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46. Which of the following does not demonstrate angular momentum? a. navigation equipment on airplanes b. the hubcap and tire system on an automobile c. a figure skater’s spin d. an apple falling from a tree e. a satellite in outer space
answer

d
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47. An example of a chaotic system is a. turbulent flow of fluids. b. the trajectory of a missile. c. the orbit of the Moon and the Earth. d. the rate at which tree grows. e. the variation of gravity on Earth.
answer

a
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48. Newton argued for the law of universal gravitation by reasoning a. dropped apples always fall to the Earth. b. while the Earth pulls on the apple, the apple also pulls on the Earth. c. As a falling object, the moon falls by just the right amount to keep it in its observed orbit. d. all of the above e. none of the above
answer

d
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49. The value of the Earth’s acceleration (g) can be found by using Newton’s universal equation for gravity. t or f
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true
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50. Velocity and time have a direct relationship when the object being measured is accelerating at a constant rate. t or f
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true
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51. The rising of a helium balloon refutes Newton’s law of universal gravitation. t or f
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false
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52. The mass of an object on the moon will be one-sixth that of the same object on earth. t or f
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false
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53. The distance traveled by an object being accelerated depends on the time squared. t or f
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true
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54. A horse running a circular track is accelerating, even if its speed remains constant. t or f
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true
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55. Acceleration can involve changes in speed, changes in direction, or both. t or f
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true
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56. Newton’s second law tells us that the more massive an object being acted on by a given force, the greater the acceleration. t or f
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false
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57. The velocity of a falling object is proportional to the length of time that object has been falling. t or f
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true
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65. Knowing that the moon and the earth are moving away from a common center of mass, how will this affect the angular momentum of the earth/moon system in 20 million years? a. increases b. decreases c. stays the same d. the moon’s rotation increases e. the earth’s rotation increases
answer

c