Chapter 18 U.S. History
Flashcard maker : Linda Lynch
Hawaii Queen, surrendered to US because new America wanted to claim it. Was heir while Hawaii was a monarchy. Said famous line \”Hawaii is for Hawaiians\” just like Pres. Monroe said \”America is for Americans\”
policy when stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. American leaders think US should join with Europe and establish colonies overseas
Factors of American imperialism
1) desire for military strength 2) thirst for new markets 3) belief in cultural superiority
Alfred T. Mahan
Admiral of US Navy. Built up the US naval power to compete with other nations. US built 9 steel-hulled cruisers. US is now world’s 3rd largest naval power
secretary of state under Lincoln and Johnson. He supported expansion of the US and arranged US to buy Alaska from Russia. Alaska brought timber, minerals, and oil for the country
Annexation of Hawaii
sugar competition between Hawaii and America. First duty free on trading sugar, then removed. Hawaii called the US to annex the islands so that they don’t need to pay the duty on sugar. Cleveland refused annexation, later McKinley approved of it. Hawaiins didn’t get to vote on a decision
US best naval base in Hawaii. It was also a refuel station for American ships
Sanford B. Dole
after Queen L is overthrown by John L. Stevens he created a new form of government headed by him.
cuban poet and journalist in exile in New York. He launched a revolution between Cuba and Spain. America wants Cuba, so he organized a Cuban resistance against Spain using guerrilla campaign and destroying property. He aimed to help cubans achieve \”a free cuba\”
spain general, he tried to crush rebels by putting them into concentration camps with really bad conditions. Nicknamed \”butcher\” in newspapers because his brutality known all over & fueled a war. It deepened American Sympathy to rebels
style of writing which exaggerates news to lure and enrage readers. Two main guys were Hearst and Pulitzer
McKinley ordered Cuba to bring back US citizens in danger and to protect US property. This ship blew up in Havana Harbor, 260 were killed and the reason is unknown.
commodore at first attack in Manila (capital of Philippines) His men destroyed all Spanish ships, now the US troops in Philippines had support from the Filipinos. The Spanish surrendered to US troops in Manila.
Battle in the Caribbean
US troops sealed Spanish borders in Cuba at Santiago de Cuba Harbor. The US army was full of unskilled volunteers.
volunteer cavalry under command of Leonard Wood and Teddy Roosevelt. Fought in Battle of San Juan Hill
San Juan Hill
most famous land battle in Cuba. 1st part of it was near Kettle Hill. Uphill charge by Rough Riders and 9th & 10th cavalries. Victory cleared the way for San Juan Hill. Roosevelt declared hero of San Juan Hill. 2 days later Spanish tried to escape the naval blockade, they did not succeed and America invaded Puerto Rico
Treaty of Paris
This ended \”a splendid little war.\” Spain freed Cuba, island of Guam and Puerto Rico to America and Spain sold the Philippines to the US
Problems with Annexation of Philippines
Arguments arose on whether US has right to annex the Philippines because imperialism is an issue. McKinley wanted to christianize Filipinos. Some thought treaty was unconstitutional because denied islands to a self government. Feared Filipinos will compete for US jobs and senate approved the annexation
this act ended military rule in Puerto Rico and set up a civil government. the US president appoints their governor and members of the upper house legislatures while citizens elect the lower house
congress extended right to US citizenship and granted the right to Puerto Ricans to elect both houses
Cuba wrote their own constitution. But US insisted Cuba add 1) cuba can’t make treaties that limit independence or permit foreign power control any territory 2) US has right to intervene in Cuba 3) Cuba can’t go into debt 4) US can buy or lease land on the island for naval and refuelling stations. Cubans protested against this amendment but eventually ratified
Cuba became this. A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
rebel Filipino leader, he believed US had promised independence, not annexation. He led the Filipinos to revolt against the US. US forced Philippines to live in zones with poor sanitation. African Americans from the US side went on the Philippine side to fight. Philippine-American war lasted 3 years and after the war US president appointed a governor and the upper house of legislatures
US secretary of state, he wants to protect the US from being shut out by China for trade. He issued the open door notes
Open Door Notes
letters addressed to leaders of imperialist nations proposing nations share their trading rights with the US, ultimately creating an open door. Imperialist nations accepted the policy
Chinese formed secret groups to get rid of foreign influence. They killed many missionaries. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and US marched on to China’s capital and put them down after 2 months
The Open Door Policy Beliefs
1) growth of economy depends on exports 2) US has right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open 3) feared closing an area to US products would threaten survival
a canal that cuts across central america connecting Atlantic and Pacific oceans. US and Britain agreed to share rights but Britain gave US exclusive rights. First US helped Panama become an independent nation from Columbia. US promised payments to Panama and will give the land back in 1999
Treaty of Portsmouth
Roosevelt was peacemaker of the Japan-Russian war over Korea
A message to congress that added to Monroe Doctrine. Stated US will use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America
used to justify keeping European powers out of the Caribbean. President Taft followed policy of using US government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businessmen
Wilson’s addition to the Monroe Doctrine. US has moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government. (viewed as undemocratic to US interests) also pressured Western Hemisphere nations to be democratic
Military leaders want foreign investments, other leaders wants diplomatic. But can’t please both sides. War almost happens between America & Mexico but Huerta’s plan collapsed and Carranza took his place as Mexican President. US withdrew its troops from Mexico.
Francisco \”Pancho\” Villa
lead rebels against Mexican President Carranza. Nationalist, talked of friendship between US and Mexico but then retaliated against US. He attacked the incoming Americans that were going to work in the mines.
lead rebels against Mexican President Carranza. He is a son of a mestizo peasant. Dedicated to land reform
John J. Pershing
ordered by Wilson to take his force into Mexico to capture Villa dead or alive. Later Wilson called in more troops to surround the Mexican border. Mexican and American troops clashed, later both withdrew and Mexico adopted a constitution that let government control nation’s oil, minerals, and placed strict regulations on foreign investors
US foreign policy goals achieved (US intervention in Mexico)
1) expanded access to foreign markets to ensure growth of domestic economy 2) US built modern navy to protect interests abroad 3) exercised police power to show dominance in Latin America
Instead of attacking Cuba, US attacked the Philippines first. George Dewey’s men destroyed every Spanish ship in Manila. In the Caribbeans, blockaded Cuba; strong navy, but not a strong army. African American regiments and Rough Riders arrived in Cuba- won battle at San Juan Hill and Roosevelt declared hero
Puerto Rico put under US military rule until Foraker Act ended it and set up civil government. US granted every Puerto Ricans US citizenship. Marti and other Cubans feared US will replace Spain. Still US helped to rebuild Cuba. Platt Amendment made US intervention in Cuba possible anytime
Aftereffects of Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris ended war and turned over Spanish land into US hands- Puerto Rico, Cuba, Philippines.
Filipino fight for independence
Filipino rebels led by Aguinaldo revolted against US and Us responded by forcing Filipinos to live in designated zones. Looked upon Filipinos as inferiors and African American soldiers developed friendship with Filipinos. $400 million spent in the war. US set up government for Filipinos.