Chapter 18 Myers Social Psychology Essay

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social psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 723)
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attribution theory
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suggests how we explain someone’s behavior—by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 724)
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 724)
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attitude
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feelings often based on our beliefs, which predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 726)
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 727)
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cognitive dissonance theory
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 728)
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conformity
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adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 732)
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informational social influence
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influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 733)
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normative social influence
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 733)
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social facilitation
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stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 738)
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social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)
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deindividuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)
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group polarization
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 740)
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groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 740)
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discrimination
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unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 743)
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prejudice
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an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 743)
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stereotype
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a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 743)
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ingroup
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“us”—people with whom one shares a common identity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 746)
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ingroup bias
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the tendency to favor one’s own group. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 746)
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outgroup
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“them”—those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 746)
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scapegoat theory
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 747)
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just-world phenomenon
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the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 748)
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aggression
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any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 749)
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frustration-aggression principle
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the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 751)
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conflict
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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 756)
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social trap
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 756)
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mere exposure effect
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the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 759)
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companionate love
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the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 763)
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passionate love
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 763)
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equity
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 764)
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self-disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 764)
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altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 765)
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bystander effect
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)
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reciprocity norm
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)
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social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 766)
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social-responsibility norm
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an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 767)
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superordinate goals
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 767)
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GRIT
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Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 769)

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