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Chapter 18 Industry, Immigrants, and Cities

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America proudly displayed its newest technological wonders at the Centennial Exposition in
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Philladelphia
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The term gilded age refers specifically to a time when
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there was a display of shallowness and worship of wealth
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As the size of the industrial work force grew in the late nineteenth century,
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A. the number of firms in many industries shrank
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After 1870,
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A. American inventiveness and technological progress flourished
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Thomas Edison accomplished all of the following achievements EXCEPT
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(What he did do) -Menlo Park Laboratory -Lightbulb -Creation of General Electric Company -First Power Station
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Edison organized the building of the first electrical power plant in
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New York City
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The major significance of Elihu Thomson’s career was his
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A. successful and prosperous general electric company
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An effect of the rise of corporations in America was
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-urban growth -increase of banks -stimulated technological change
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Before the industrial boom of the late 1800s,
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labor was largely done by skilled artisans who controlled the pace and output of their labor
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An example of vertical integration was
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..the meatpacking industry, dominated by Gustavus Swift
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The aggressive tactics of John D. Rockefeller were supported by his
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financial alliance with investment bankers and money powers: inancial alliance with investment banker J.P. Morgan.
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An industrial owner who practiced horizontal integration
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bought out competitors in the same industry: Andrew Carnegie
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The pioneer of horizontal integration was
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C. John D. Rockerfeller
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Automated cigarette manufacturing was pioneered by
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James Duke
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One disadvantage for American workers, of the rise of corporations was
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lower wages and more unskilled workers
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The workplace of the late 1800s included all of the following conditions EXCEPT: A. large forces of unskilled laborers B. long hours C. increased menanization D. a safe and healthy environment
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D. a safe and healthy environment or increasing numbers of skilled crastmen
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One effect of workers being required to work long hours was
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a disruption of workers family lives: poor family life
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The use of sweatshops was most common in
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garment industry
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By 1900, legislative acts that regulated the horrors of child labor were
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lenient or lax
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Which statement about women and children in the work force is NOT true?
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Conditions were hard for women and children, but they received the same pay as men.
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Terrence Powderly
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The leader of the Knights of labor.
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Samuel Gompers
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led the American Federation of Labor as it became the largest organizer of workers in the United States
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Eugene V. Debs
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Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
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Henry Clay Frick
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Manager of the Carnegie Steel plant outside of Pittsburgh, PA who barricaded the plant and hired armed Pinkerton guards to attack striking workers
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Theodore Dreiser
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American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
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Jacob A. Riis
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Danish immigrant reporter for the New York Sun who shocked middle class Americans with his account “How the Other Half Lives”, a damning indictment of the poverty of the New York slums that profoundly influenced New York City police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt.
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Kate Chopin
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(The Awakening, 1899), United States writer who described Creole life in Louisiana (1851-1904)
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Jane Addams
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1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women’s Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
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Daniel Hale Williams
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first to perform open heart surgery by removing a knife from a stabbing victim’s chest
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Amadeo Pietro Giannini
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the peoples bank, who gave money to the little guy
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In the early 1900s, rare professional opportunities were available to women as
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typewriters, typists
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Regarding the increase of female workers, most Americans believed that
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A. a women proper role was caring for the family and home
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The purpose of the settlement house movement was to
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moderate effects of poverty through neighborhood reconstruction
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Andrew Carnegie stated a differing view of the Gospel of Wealth by expressing that
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the wealthy should set an example for the working class and return some of the wealth to the community in which they lived.
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Which statement would most likely have been said by a believer in Social Darwinism?
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“The laws of nature dictate the conditions of life for both rich and poor.”
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The Great Uprising of 1877 was a general strike against the nation’s
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wage cuts
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A major difference between the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor was
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Knight of Labor was inclusive and open to almost anyone but the AFL was for white skilled laborers only
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Which labor organization was formed in 1886 and became the major organizing body for skilled workers?
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American Federation of Labor (AFL)
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Terrence Powderly supported all of the following ideas EXCEPT
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Seven policemen and four workers were killed by a bomb at Haymarket Square in
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Chicago
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The year 1886 saw the labor movement unify behind the move for
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an 8-hour work day
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American workers were drawn to the American Federation of Labor’s
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emphasis on collective bargaining.
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A turning point in the Pullman strike occurred when
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Debs refused to honor a court injunction against the strike, forcing the government to send in troops.
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According to your text, how many strikes were called in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries?
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-5 -7 -8 -18,000
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A huge group of Jewish immigrants escaped from the pogroms in
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Russia
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Which group was NOT a large part of the “new immigrants” in the period 1880-1910?
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(Groups that were) -Chinese -Japanese -Italians -Jews
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Francesco Barone’s success in America led to
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Convinced 8000 residents of his former village in Sicily to migrate to Buffalo.
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In urban, working-class neighborhoods of the early twentieth century,
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ethnic groups lived in mixed or neighboring sections of town
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Which statement would most likely have been said by a nativist?
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“The nation’s purity is being ruined by Catholics and undesirable foreigners.”
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Scientific racism espoused all of the following beliefs EXCEPT
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“new immigrants” were inferior, thus they must be helped by native Americans
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The American Protective Association specifically focused on
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limiting the civil rights of Catholic Americans
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What was the only area in which immigrants discovered they were favored by nativists?
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west
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The term “Great Migration” refers to the
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mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North.
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Stereotypes of blacks were reinforced
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Restricted to segregated urban ghettos. Less job opportunities.
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Immigration and migration patterns from 1880-1910 resulted in
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Growth of cities
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Residential suburbs were first populated by
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the urban middle class.
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“Downtown” districts tended to include
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Corporation headquarters were here. Entertainment + Shopping
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The book, American Woman’s Home, emphasized all of the following points EXCEPT
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All of the following are true about the new middle class EXCEPT
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Joseph Pulitzer and Randolph Hearst capitalized on the middle-class’s taste for
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the easy-to-read form of urban tabloids.
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After 1890, department stores
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Place where many people can meet. Everyone can shop here
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Coney Island in New York served as an optimal example of Americans’ love for
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amusement parks
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Which spectator sport was largely favored by the middle class at the turn of the century?
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Baseball -organized, inexpensive, leagues
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Which event did NOT happen in the 1890s? a. President Cleveland intercedes in the Pullman strike b. Guerrilla warfare rages in the hills during the Homestead Strike c. General Electric opens its research facility plant d. The Knights of Labor experience their largest membership
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Which event happened last? a. Policemen and workers are killed when a bomb explodes at Haymarket Square b. The Erdman Act establishes mediation in railroad labor disputes c. Henry Clay Frick hires scabs to break the Homestead Steel strike d. Eugene Debs leads workers’ protests in the Pullman strike
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Which labor dispute happened first? a. the Homestead Steel Strike b. the 8-hour day movement in Chicago c. the Great Uprising in the railway industry d. the Pullman strike
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the Great Uprising in the railway industry
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The American Federation of Labor was formed in a. 1886 b. 1894 c. 1897 d. 1905
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1905
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In which decade did John D. Rockefeller form Standard Oil?
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1870-1879
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What circumstances led to the sudden rise and fall of the Knights of Labor
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The Knights of Labor appealed to many but had many differing opinions. After the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was formed, the Knights of Labor fell out of favor and disappeared. The major difference was the Knights of Labor formed the foundation upon which the AFL was born. Their demise was a natural evolution of the labor movement in this country. The Knights of Labor lacked good management and their inability to carry out successful strikes for their members caused their ranks to be recruited by the AFL.
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In what ways did labor conditions change for the working class in the 50 years after the Civil War?
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The first local trade unions of men in the US formed in the late 18th century, and women began organizing in the 1820s. However, the movement came into its own after the Civil War, when the short-lived National Labor Union (NLU) became the first federation of American unions. Women working under sweat shop conditions organized the first union in the early 19th century.
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What conditions were similar and different for new immigrants and blacks in urban areas?
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In urban areas there was access to better and more affordable education. Urban areas were a melting pot (tossed salad) of sorts in America. Urban areas had better work oppurtunities and there were more immigrants and blacks in comparison to rural areas. Despite all these positive reasons to move to an urban area there were still oppressive whites who gave unfair pair and made the lives of “second-class citizens” a lot harder.
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Describe examples of both vertical and horizontal integration
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Vertical INtegration, in a nutshell, is when a business of some sort becomes subsistent. An example of this Gustavis Swift and the meatpacking industry becuase he bought and created products to better the condition of his product such as the freezing railroad car. Horizontal Integration is when a company or business buys out other company to widen their appeal and also eliminate the competition. Examples of these are Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, both big business guys who bought out their competition.