Chapter 18 History Essay

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1. Which of the following was one of the new forms of wealth in late-nineteenth-century America?
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c. Paper securities
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2. What was the approximate railroad mileage in the United States in 1900?
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d. 190,000 miles
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3. Why did railroad owners set up “pools” in the latter part of the nineteenth century?
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Railroad operators were suffering from cut-throat competition.
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4. How did electricity change the face of the American city around the turn of the century?
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d. Electric lights illuminated homes, factories, and the streets.
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5. What type of competitive system existed in the steel industry after the formation of U.S. Steel in 1901?
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Oligopoly
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6. What political purpose did the theory of social Darwinism serve in the late nineteenth century?
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a. Social Darwinism justified economic inequality and curbed social reform.
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7. According to advocates of laissez-faire economics, what was the government’s only role in the economy?
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b. To protect private property
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8. For what purpose did the Supreme Court draw on the Fourteenth Amendment in a series of decisions in the 1880s and 1890s?
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d. To protect corporations
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9. High voter participation and party loyalty, both common in the Gilded Age, were secured by
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b. patronage.
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10. Why were Democrats able to attract working-class Catholic and Jewish immigrant voters in the cities of the Northeast?
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d. Democrats did not push moral reforms that attacked immigrant culture.
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11. What helped the American Tobacco Company dominate the industry?
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c. The invention of a cigarette rolling machine
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12. What was the outcome of Ida B. Wells’s 1890s campaign against lynching?
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b. Increased awareness of southern racial violence
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13. Why were the presidents who served in the last part of the nineteenth century—Rutherford B. Hayes through William McKinley—largely forgotten men?
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d. These presidents were overshadowed by business developments and party politics at state and local levels.
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14. What did the “Mugwumps” of the Gilded Age stand for?
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d. The introduction of civil service reform
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15. What major reform was enacted during Stalwart Chester A. Arthur’s presidency?
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a. The Pendleton Civil Service Act
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16. Why did Irish Catholic voters fail to turn out for James G. Blaine in 1884?
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d. Blaine had failed to distance himself from the anti-Catholic statement of a prominent supporter.
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17. Which groups were the most enthusiastic supporters of the tariff in the late nineteenth century?
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a. Industrialists and Westerners who traded in wool, hides, and lumber
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18. States’ attempts to regulate the railroads ultimately failed because the Supreme Court’s 1886 Wabash v. Illinois decision ruled that
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b. railroads that crossed state boundaries fell outside state jurisdiction.
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19. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 stated that
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d. pools and trusts were illegal.
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20. What was the central issue addressed by the Greenback Labor Party?
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d. The issuance of paper currency not tied to the gold supply

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