Chapter 18: Classification Study Guide

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What is taxonomy?
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discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name
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What two things does a good system of classification always include?
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a. scientifically names them b. groups them in a logical manner
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What is Binomial Nomenclature and what is it used for?
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-each species is assigned a two-part scientific name -to name the animals in scientific names (upper and lowercase)
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The first of the two Names stands for the organsims_________.
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genus
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The second of the names stands for the organsims_________.
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species
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What is taxon?
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group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
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How many taxonomic categories were present in Linnaeus’s systems of classification?
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seven
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What were the two main kingdoms listed in Linnaeus’s system of classification?
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a. kingdom b. species
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List Linnaeus’s levels of taxonomy from broadest tot most specific.
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a. kingdom b. phylum c. class d. order e. family f. genus g. species
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What is evolutionary classification?
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method of grouping organisms together according to their evolutionary history
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What is cladistic anaysis and what does it use to classify organisms?
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Identifies and considers only those characteristics of organisms that are evolutionary innovation
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What are derived characters?
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characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
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If organsims share similar genes what does this tell us about the organism?
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that they are common ancestors
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What is a molecular clock and how is it used?
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-model that DNA comparisions to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently -this process relies on mutation that occurs
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What are the six kingdoms identified today?
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a. animalia b. plantae c. fungi d. prostists e. eubacteria f. archaebacteria
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Describe key characteristics of each of the six kingdoms?
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a. Plants- make their own food. b. Animals- eat other organisms. c. Archaebacteria- found in extreme environments on Earth. d. Eubacteria- true bacteria. e. Fungi- have membrane-bound organelles. f. Protists- all microscopic organisms that aren’t bacteria, plants, animals or fungi.
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What is a domain?
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most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
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What are the three domains that make up the three domain system?
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a. bacteria b. archea c. eukarya
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Which kingdoms belong in each of the three domains?
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-bacteria=eubacteria -archea=archeabacteria -eukarya=protists, fungi, plants, and animals

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