Chapter 17. The East Asian World

Flashcard maker : Viola Marenco
Ming Dynasty
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.

Ming inaugurated a period of territorial expansion westward into Central Asia and southward into Vietnam while consolidating control over China’s vast heartland. At the same time, starting in 1405, Admiral Zhenghe (JEHNG-huh) led a series of voyages that spread Chinese influence far into the Indian Ocean. Then, suddenly, after 1433 the voyages were discontinued, and the dynasty turned its attention to domestic concerns (see Chapter 10).

Ming Admiral Zhenge took his fleet FAR into the Indian Ocean.

Zhu Yuanzhang (aka Ming Hong)
the founder and first emperor of China’s Ming dynasty.

an itinerant Monk banded leader and eventual Military leader rises to power and defeats the Mongols establishing the Ming and \”Bright\” Dynasty. (1369-1644)

peasant leader who defeated the Mongols and starts Ming Dynasty

China gradually weakened after the death of Khubilai Khan and was finally overthrown in 1368 by a massive peasant rebellion under the leadership of Zhu Yuanzhang (JOO yoo-wen-JAHNG), who had declared himself the founding emperor of a new Ming (Bright) dynasty (1369-1644).

Portuguese Arrival in China
The Portugal were the FIRST Sea-Faring Europeans to arrive in China (in 1514).

They operated from Macao

Despite the Ming’s retreat from active participation in maritime trade, when the Portuguese arrived in 1514, China was in command of a vast empire that stretched from the steppes of Central Asia to the China Sea, from the Gobi Desert to the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia.

Indeed, the bellicose and uncultured behavior of the Portu- guese so outraged Chinese officials that they expelled the Europeans, but after further negotiations, the Portuguese were permitted to occupy the tiny territory of Macao (muh- KOW), a foothold they would retain until the end of the twentieth century.

European technology
The Chinese viewed the Europeans as barbarians. But eventually technology like eyeglasses, telescope, the clock, the prism, etc. impressed them.
Ming Brought to Earth
High taxes, necessitated in part because corrupt officials siphoned off revenues, led to rural unrest and violent protests among urban workers.
Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng (lee zuh- CHENG) was a postal worker in central China who had been dismissed from his job as part of a cost-saving measure by the imperial court.

In the 1630s, Li managed to extend the revolt throughout the country, and his forces finally occupied the capital, Beijing, in 1644.

But Li was unable to hold his conquest. The overthrow of the Ming dynasty presented a great temptation to the Manchus.

With the assistance of many military commanders who had deserted from the Ming, the Manchus seized Beijing. Li Zicheng’s army disintegrated, and the Manchus declared a new dynasty: the Qing (Ch’ing, or Pure), which lasted from 1644 until 1911. Once again, China was under foreign rule.

Manchus/Jurchen
Internal problems were accompanied by disturbances along the northern frontier. Following long precedent, the Ming had attempted to pacify the frontier tribes by forging alliances with them, arranging marriages between them and the local aristocracy, and granting trade privileges.

One of the alliances was with the Manchus (man-CHOOZ)—also known as the Jurchen (roor-ZHEN)—the descendants of a people who had briefly established a kingdom in northern China during the early thirteenth century. The Manchus, a mixed agricultural and hunting people, lived northeast of the Great Wall in the area known today as Manchuria (man-CHUR-ee-uh).

At first, the Manchus were satisfied with consolidating their territory.

A major epidemic devastated the chinese population. The suffering brought a vast peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng (Li Tzu-ch’eng) (1604-1651). Li Zicheng (lee zuh- CHENG) was a postal worker in central China who had been dismissed from his job as part of a cost-saving measure by the

China and its enemies during Late Ming Era
Qing Dynasty
Manchus formed the Qing dynasty.

The accession of the Manchus to power in Beijing was not universally applauded. Their ruthless policies and insensitivity to Chinese customs soon provoked resistance. Some Ming loyalists fled to Southeast Asia, but others maintained their resistance to the new rulers from inside the country. One especially famous Ming loyalist, popularly known as Koxinga (gok-SHING-uh), took refuge on the island of Taiwan with many of his followers. Qing forces occupied the island in 1683 and incorporated it into the empire.

Manchus
The accession of the Manchus to power in Beijing was not universally applauded. Their ruthless policies and insensitivity to Chinese customs soon provoked resistance.

The Manchus were MORE successful than the Mongols.

The Manchus proved to be more adept at adapting to Chinese conditions than the Mongols. Unlike the latter, who had tried to impose their own methods of ruling, the Manchus adopted the Chinese political system (although, as we shall see, they retained their distinct position within it) and were gradually accepted by most Chinese as the legitimate rulers of the country.

Yongle and Hongwu
Like all of China’s great dynasties, the Qing was blessed with a series of strong early rulers who pacified the country, rectified many of the most obvious social and economic inequities, and restored peace and prosperity.

For the Ming dynasty, these strong emperors had been Zhu Yuanzhang and Yongle (YOONG- luh);

under the Qing, they would be Kangxi (K’ang Hsi) and Qianlong (CHAN-loong) (Ch’ien Lung).

Beijing
the queue (KYOO)
long braided hair with shaved heads, used to distinguish between the manchus and the chinese

To make it easier to identify rebels, the government ordered all Chinese to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles. All Chinese males were to shave their foreheads and braid their hair into a queue (KYOO); those who refused were to be executed. As a popular saying put it, ”Lose your hair or lose your head.”4

The Manchu hairstyle signified Han submission to Qing rule, and also aided the Manchu identification of those Han who refused to accept Qing dynasty domination.

\”bannermen\”
”Bannermen” were the primary fighting force of the empire.

Still, the Manchus, like the Mongols, were ethnically, linguistically, and culturally different from their subject population. The Qing attempted to cope with this reality by adopting a two-pronged strategy.

One part of this strategy was aimed at protecting their distinct identity within an alien society. The Manchus, representing less than 2 percent of the entire population, were legally defined as distinct from everyone else in China.

The Manchu nobles retained their aristocratic privileges, while their economic base was protected by extensive landholdings and revenues provided from the state treasury.

Other Manchus were assigned farmland and organized into eight military units, called banners, which were stationed as separate units in various strategic positions throughout China.

These ”bannermen” were the primary fighting force of the empire. Ethnic Chinese were prohibited from settling in Manchuria and were still compelled to wear their hair in a queue as a sign of submission to the ruling dynasty.

Kangxi
Kangxi – The FIRST MAJOR RULER FOR THE QING Dynasty

The greatest ruler in Chinese history. He ascended the throne at the age of seven, and he began to take charge of the Qing administration while he was still an adolescent. He stabilized Imperial rule and he also made the dynasty acceptable to the general population.

Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) was arguably the greatest ruler in Chinese history. Ascending to the throne at the age of seven, he was blessed with diligence, political astuteness, and a strong character and began to take charge of Qing administration while still an adolescent. During the six decades of his reign, Kangxi not only stabilized imperial rule by pacifying the restive peoples along the northern and west- ern frontiers but also managed to make the dynasty accept- able to the general population. As an active patron of arts and letters, he cultivated the support of scholars through a num- ber of major projects.

Activities of westerners (missionaries, dominicans, etc.) reached their height.

Kangxi quite tolerant of religions

Many converted to Christianity

Qianlong
Matteo Ricci, and Jesuits v. Dominicans and Franciscans
the Pope ordered all missionaries and converts to conform to the official orthodoxy set forth in Europe.
dyarchy
a mechanism for the sharing of administrative positions by Manchus and Chinese.

At the same time that the Qing attempted to preserve their identity, they recognized the need to bring ethnic Chinese into the top ranks of imperial administration. Their solution was to create a system, known as dyarchy (DY-ahr- kee), in which all important administrative positions were shared equally by Chinese and Manchus.

Of the six members of the grand secretariat, three were Manchu and three were Chinese. Each of the six ministries had an equal number of Chinese and Manchu members, and Manchus and Chinese also shared responsibilities at the provincial level. Below the provinces, Chinese were dominant. Although the system did not work perfectly, the Manchus’ willingness to share power did win the allegiance of many Chinese.

\”Sacred Edict\”
The \”Sacred Edict\” delineating proper Confucian behavior was issued by Kangxi.

In 1670, the great emperor Kangxi issued the Sacred Edict to popularize Confucian values among the common people. The edict was read publicly at periodic intervals in every vil- lage in the country and set the standard for behavior throughout the empire. Note the similarities and differences between Kangxi’s edict and the Japanese decree on p. 499

Kangxi’s Sacred Edict
1. Esteem most highly filial piety and brotherly submis- sion, in order to give due importance to the social relations.
2. Behave with generosity toward your kindred, in order to illustrate harmony and benignity.
3. Cultivate peace and concord in your neighborhoods, in order to prevent quarrels and litigations.
4. Recognize the importance of husbandry and the culture of the mulberry tree, in order to ensure a sufficiency of clothing and food.

Give weight to colleges and schools, in order to make
correct the practice of the scholar.

Heshen
But it was also under Qianlong that the first signs of the in- ternal decay of the Manchu dynasty began to appear. The clues were familiar ones.

Qing military campaigns along the frontier were expensive and placed heavy demands on the imperial treasury. As the emperor aged, he became less astute in selecting his subordinates and fell under the influence of corrupt elements at court, including the notorious Manchu official Heshen (HEH-shen) (Ho Shen). Funds officially destined for military or other official use were increasingly siphoned off by Heshen or his favorites, arousing resentment among military and civilian officials.

White Lotus Rebellion
Corruption at the center led inevitably to unrest in rural areas, where higher taxes, bureaucratic venality, and rising pressure on the land because of the growing population had produced economic hardship. In central China, discontented peasants who had recently been resettled on infertile land launched a revolt known as the White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804). The revolt was eventually suppressed at great expense.
the kowtow
The first problems came in the north, where Russian traders seeking skins and furs began to penetrate the region between Siberian Russia and Manchuria. Earlier the Ming dynasty had attempted to deal with the Rus- sians by the traditional method of placing them in a tributary relationship and playing them off against other non-Chinese groups in the area. But the tsar refused to play by Chinese rules. His envoys to Beijing ignored the tribute system and refused to perform the kowtow (the ritual of prostration and touching the forehead to the ground), the classical symbol of fealty demanded of all foreign ambassadors to the Chinese court.
Treaty of Nerchinsk
The boundary dispute between the Russian tsar and the Qing was settled by the Treaty of Nerchinsk

Formal diplomatic relations were finally established in 1689 between Russia and China, when the Treaty of Nerchinsk (ner-CHINSK), negoti- ated with the aid of Jesuit missionaries resident at the Qing court, settled the boundary dispute and provided for regular trade between the two countries.

established the Sino-Russian border

it ended frontier wars and stopped Russia from moving East, and established trade between the two empires. Gave Russians very important status with Qing.

East India Company/Canton
Dealing with the foreigners who arrived by sea was more difficult. By the end of the seventeenth century, the English had replaced the Portuguese as the dominant force in Euro- pean trade. Operating through the East India Company, which served as both a trading unit and the administrator of English territories in Asia, the English established their first trading post at Canton (KAN-tun) in 1699. Over the next de- cades, trade with China, notably the export of tea and silk to England, increased rapidly. To limit contact between Chinese and Europeans, the Qing licensed Chinese trading firms at Canton to be the exclusive conduit for trade with the West. Eventually, the Qing confined the Europeans to a small island just outside the city walls and permitted them to reside there only from October through March.

For a while, the British tolerated this system, which brought considerable profit to the East India Company and its shareholders.

Canton
China trade with England
Chinese were eager to trade with England at the end of the 18th century
Lord Macartney
The British government and traders alike were restive at the uneven balance of trade between the two countries, which forced the British to ship vast amounts of silver bullion to China in exchange for its silk, porcelain, and tea.

In 1793, a mission under Lord Macartney visited Beijing to press for liberalization of trade restrictions. A compromise was reached on the kowtow (Macartney was per- mitted to bend on one knee, as was the British custom), but Qianlong expressed no interest in British manufactured products (see the box on p. 487). An exasperated Macartney compared the Chinese Empire to ”an old, crazy, first-rate man-of-war” that had once awed its neighbors ”merely by her bulk and appear- ance” but was now destined under incompetent leadership to be ”dashed to pieces on the shore.”5

With his contemptuous dismissal of the British request, the emperor had inadvertently sowed the seeds for a century of humiliation.

joint family
THE FAMILY Chinese society continued to be organized around the family. As in earlier periods, the ideal family unit in Qing China was the joint family, in which three or four generations lived under the same roof. When sons married, they brought their wives to live with them in the family homestead. Prosperous families would add a separate section to the house to accommodate the new family unit.

Unmarried daughters would also remain in the house. Aging parents and grandparents remained under the same roof until they died and were cared for by younger members of the house- hold. This ideal did not always correspond to reality, how- ever, since many families did not possess sufficient land to support a large household. One historian has estimated that only about 40 percent of Chinese families actually lived in joint families.

Chen Shu
a female Chinese painter during the early Qing dynasty. She was born in Xiuzhou (now Jiaxing) and was also known by the courtesy name Nanlou and her literary names \”Shangyuan Dizi\” and \”Nanlou Laoren\”. Apart from her artistic works, she was also known as the mother of Qing statesman and poet Qian Chenqun (zh:钱陈群). After the early death of her husband, Chen raised her son by herself. When the latter became a prominent statesman in the court of the Qianlong Emperor, he introduced the emperor to his mother’s paintings. Through this avenue she became favored by Qianlong, and many of her works were featured in the imperial collection (today in both the Palace Museum in Beijing and the National Palace Museum in Taipei). Chen painted figures, landscapes, and flower-and-bird paintings.[1]
women in china
The role of women in traditional China

was a subservient one, as a woman could even be divorced for not bearing sons.

sometimes resulted in the killing of girls if their family lacked food.

Love in Qing China
love was seen as a problem because it diverted a couple from their duties to the larger family.
Gold Vase Plum/The Golden Lotus
Chinese Novels

Gold Vase Plum, known in English translation as The Golden Lotus, presents a cutting expose ́ of the decadent aspects of late Ming society. Considered by many the first realistic social novel—preceding its European counterparts by two centu- ries—The Golden Lotus depicts the depraved life of a wealthy landlord who cruelly manipulates those around him for sex, money, and power. In a rare exception in Chinese fiction, the villain is not punished for his evil ways; justice is served instead by the misfortunes that befall his descendants.

The Dream of the Red Chamber
Chinese Novels

The Dream of the Red Chamber is generally considered China’s most distinguished popular novel.

Published in 1791, some 150 years after The Golden Lotus, it tells of the tragic love of two young people caught in the financial and moral disintegration of a powerful Chinese clan. The hero and the heroine, both sensitive and spoiled, represent the inevitable decline of the Chia family and come to an equally inevitable tragic end, she in death and he in an unhappy marriage to another.

the \”Forbidden City\”
The \”Forbidden City\” outstanding example of Chinese architecture during the Ming and early Qing eras.

The Imperial City in Beijing. During the fifteenth century, the Ming dynasty erected an immense imperial city on the remnants of the palace of Khubilai Khan in Beijing. Surrounded by 61⁄2 miles of walls, the enclosed compound is divided into a maze of private apartments and offices; it also includes an imposing ceremonial quadrangle with stately halls for imperial audiences and banquets.

Because it was off-limits to commoners, the compound was known as the Forbidden City. The fearsome lion shown in the inset, representing the omnipotence of the Chinese Empire, guards the entrance to the private apartments of the palace.

blue and white porcelain and chinoiserie
Probably the best-known artistic achievements of the Ming era

Ming porcelain was desired throughout the world for its delicate blue-and-white floral decorations. The blue coloring was produced with cobalt that had originally been brought from the Middle East along the Silk Road and was known in China as ”Mohammedan blue.” In the early seventeenth century, the first Ming porcelain arrived in the Netherlands, where it was called kraak because it had been loaded on two Portuguese ships known as carracks seized by the Dutch fleet. It took Dutch artisans more than a century to learn how to produce a porcelain as fine as the examples brought from China.

Manufacturing in China
Despite manufacturing and commerce growing in Ming and Qing China the elite retained a preference for agriculture.
Oda Nobunaga
seized Kyoto and spent his last years trying to consolidate his rule

In 1568, Oda Nobunaga (OH-dah noh- buh-NAH-guh), the son of a samurai (SAM-uh-ry) and a military commander under the Ashikaga shogunate, seized the imperial capital of Kyoto and placed the reigning shogun under his domination. During the next few years, the brutal and ambitious Nobunaga attempted to consolidate his rule throughout the central plains by defeating his rivals and suppressing the power of the Buddhist estates, but he was killed by one of his generals in 1582 before the process was complete.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi and the \”sword hunt\”
Created a national currency
one of three unifiers
was a farmer
increased the area he controlled
BUT DID NOT gain control of Korea

Expelled missionaries from Japan because they interfered with local Japanese political matters.

Oda Nobunaga was succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (toh-yoh- TOH-mee hee-day-YOH-shee), a farmer’s son who had worked his way up through the ranks to become a military commander. Originally lacking a family name of his own, he eventually adopted the name Toyotomi (”abundant provider”) to embellish his reputation for improving the material standards of his domain. Hide- yoshi located his capital at Osaka (oh-SAH-kuh), where he built a castle to accommodate his headquar- ters, and gradually extended his power outward to the southern islands of Shikoku (shee-KOH-koo) and Kyushu (KYOO-shoo) (see Map 17.3). By 1590, he had persuaded most of the daimyo on the Japanese islands to accept his authority and created a national currency. Then he invaded Korea in an abortive effort to export his rule to the Asian mainland (see ”Korea: In a Dangerous Neighborhood” later in this chapter).

Despite their efforts, however, neither Nobunaga nor Hideyoshi was able to eliminate the power of the local daimyo. Both were compelled to form alliances with some daimyo in order to destroy other more powerful rivals. At the conclusion of his conquests in 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi could claim to be the supreme proprie- tor of all registered lands in areas under his authority

The daimyo in turn began to pacify the countryside, carrying out extensive ”sword hunts” to disarm the population and attracting samurai to their ser- vice. The Japanese tradition of decentralized rule had not yet been overcome.

sword hunts
The Hideyoshi daimyo in turn began to pacify the countryside, carrying out extensive ”sword hunts” to disarm the population and attracting samurai to their ser- vice. The Japanese tradition of decentralized rule had not yet been overcome.
Tokugawa Ieyasu/Tokugawa Shogunate and the \”Great Peace\”
The most powerful and lengthiest of all Japanese shogunates

After Hideyoshi’s death in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh- koo-GAH-wah ee-yeh-YAH-soo), the powerful daimyo of Edo (EH-doh)—modern Tokyo—moved to fill the vacuum. Neither Hideyoshi nor Oda Nobunaga had claimed the title of shogun (SHOH-gun), but Ieyasu named himself shogun in 1603, initiating the most powerful and long-lasting of all Japanese shogunates.

The Tokugawa rulers completed the restoration of central authority begun by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi and remained in power until 1868, when a war dis- mantled the entire system. As a contemporary phrased it, ”Oda pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it.”8

The unification of Japan took place almost simultaneously with the coming of the Europeans. Portuguese traders sailing in a Chinese junk that may have been blown off course by a typhoon had landed on the islands in 1543.

Tokugawa control
The Tokugawa shoguns exerted control over the daimyo by
compelling the daimyo to maintain two residences, one in their own domain and one in Edo.
cotton and hemp
By the eighteenth century, cotton had replaced hemp as the cloth of choice for most Japanese.
Portuguese in Japan
Portuguese traders sailing in a Chinese junk that may have been blown off course by a typhoon had landed on the islands in 1543.

Portuguese were the first European traders who brought firearms to Japan.

Francis Xavier
The first Jesuit missionary, Francis Xavier (ZAY-vee-ur), arrived in 1549.

Initially, the visitors were welcomed. The curious Japanese (the Japanese were ”very desirous of knowledge,” said Francis Xavier) were fascinated by tobacco, clocks, spectacles, and other European goods, and local daimyo were interested in purchas- ing all types of European weapons and armaments (see the box on p. 495). Oda Nobunaga and Toyo- tomi Hideyoshi found the new firearms helpful in defeating their enemies and unifying the islands. The effect on Japanese military architecture was par- ticularly striking as local lords began to erect castles on the European model. Many of these castles, such as Hideyoshi’s castle at Osaka, still exist today.

Missionaries added to the problem
by deliberately destroying local idols and shrines and turning some temples into Christian schools or churches.

Inevitably, the local authorities reacted. In 1587, Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued an edict pro- hibiting further Christian activities within his domains. Japan, he declared, was ”the land of the Gods,” and the destruction of shrines by the foreigners was ”something unheard of in previ- ous ages.” To ”corrupt and stir up the lower classes” to commit such sacrileges, he declared, was ”outrageous.”9 The parties re- sponsible (the Jesuits) were ordered to leave the country within twenty days. Hideyoshi was careful to distinguish missionary from trading activities, however, and merchants were permitted to continue their operations (see the box on p. 496).

Edo and Kyoto
Edo – (Tokyo – center of shogunate power
the imperial capital of Kyoto
Deshima Island/Nagasaki
The sole remaining opening to the West was at the island of Deshima (deh-SHEE-muh or deh-JEE-muh) in Nagasaki harbor, where in 1609 a small Dutch community was permitted to engage in limited trade with Japan (the Dutch, unlike the Portuguese and the Spanish, had not allowed missionary activities to interfere with their commer- cial interests). Dutch ships were permitted to dock at Nagasaki harbor only once a year and, after close inspection, were allowed to remain for two or three months. Conditions on the island of Deshima itself were quite confining: the Dutch physician Engelbert Kaempfer complained that the Dutch lived in ”almost perpetual imprisonment.”10
bakufu
a coalition of daimyo and a council of elders

the bakufu (buh- KOO-foo or bah-KOO-fuh)—the central government— sought to restrict the ability of local authorities to carry out commercial transactions with foreign merchants.

Once in power, the Tokugawa attempted to strengthen the system that had governed Japan for more than three hundred years. They followed precedent in ruling through the bakufu, composed now of a coalition of daimyo, and a council of eld- ers. But the system was more centralized than it had been previously. Now the shogunate government played a dual role. It set national policy on behalf of the emperor in Kyoto while simultaneously governing the shogun’s own domain, which included about one-quarter of the national territory as well as the three great cities of Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka.

han
The separate territories, or domains, of the Tokugawa shogunate
fudai and tozama daimyo
As before, the state was divided into separate territories, called domains (han), which were ruled by a total of about 250 indi- vidual daimyo lords. The daimyo themselves were divided into two types: the fudai (FOO-dy) daimyo (inside daimyo), who were mostly small daimyo that were directly subordinate to the shogunate, and the tozama (toh-ZAH-mah) daimyo (out-side daimyo), who were larger, more independent lords that were usually more distant from the center of shogunate power in Edo.

In theory, the daimyo were essentially autonomous, since they were able to support them- selves from taxes on their lands (the shogunate received its own revenues from its extensive landholdings)

\”hostage system\”
In theory, the daimyo were essen- tially autonomous, since they were able to support them- selves from taxes on their lands (the shogunate received its own revenues from its extensive landholdings). In actuality, the shogunate was able to guarantee daimyo loyalties by compelling daimyo lords to maintain two residences, one in their own domains and the other at Edo, and to leave their families in Edo as hostages for the daimyo’s good behavior. Keeping up two residences also placed the Japanese nobility in a difficult economic position.
ronin
Not everyone benefited from the economic changes of the 17th and 18th centuries, however, notably the samurai, who were barred by tradition and prejudice from commercial activities. Although some profited from their transformation into a managerial class on the daimyo domains, most still relied on their revenues from rice lands, which were often insufficient to cover their rising expenses; consequently, they fell heavily into debt.

Others were released from servitude to their lord and became ”masterless samurai.” Occasionally, these unemployed warriors—known as ronin (ROH-nihn), or ”wave men”—revolted or plotted against the local authorities.

In one episode, made famous in song and story as ”The Forty-Seven Ronin,” the masterless samurai of a local lord who had been forced to commit suicide by a shogunate official later assassinated the official in revenge. Although their act received wide popular acclaim, the ronin were later forced to take their own lives.

Women in Japan
Women were at a disadvantage among the common people. Marriages were arranged, and as in China, the new wife moved in with the family of her husband. A wife who did not meet the expectations of her spouse or his family was likely to be divorced.

Still, gender relations were more egalitarian than among the nobility. Women were generally valued as childbearers and homemakers, and both sexes worked in the fields.

Coeducational schools were established in villages and market towns, and about one-quarter of the students were female.

Poor families, however, often put infant daughters to death or sold them into prostitution and the ”floating world” of entertainment.

During the late Tokugawa era, peasant women became more outspoken and active in social protests and in some cases played a major role in provoking demonstrations against government exactions or exploitation by landlords or merchants.

Such attitudes toward women operated within the context of the increasingly rigid stratification of Japanese society. Deeply conservative in their social policies, the Tokugawa rulers established strict legal distinctions between the four main classes in Japan (warriors, artisans, peasants, and mer- chants). Intermarriage between classes was forbidden in theory, although sometimes the prohibitions were ignored in practice.

eta
Below these classes were Japan’s outcasts, the eta (AY-tuh). Formerly, they were permitted to escape their status, at least in theory. The Tokugawa made their status he- reditary and enacted severe discriminatory laws against them, regulating their place of residence, their dress, and even their hairstyles.
Saikaku’s Five Women Who Loved Love
THE LITERATURE OF THE NEW MIDDLE CLASS The best examples of this new urban fiction are the works of Saikaku (SY-kah-koo) (1642-1693), considered one of Japan’s finest novelists. Saikaku’s greatest novel, Five Women Who Loved Love, relates the amorous exploits of five women of the merchant class. Based partly on real-life experiences, it broke from the Confucian ethic that stressed a wife’s fidelity to her husband and portrayed women who were willing to die for love—and all but one eventually did. Despite the tragic circumstances, the tone of the novel is upbeat and sometimes comic, and the author’s wry comments prevent the reader from becoming emotionally involved with the heroines’ mis- fortunes. In addition to heterosexual novels for the merchant class, Saikaku also wrote of homosexual liaisons among the samurai.

five women ready to die for sexual ecstasy.

Kabuki and No
In the theater, the rise of Kabuki (kuh-BOO-kee) threat- ened the long dominance of the No (NOH) play, replacing the somewhat restrained and elegant thematic and stylistic approach of the classical drama with a new emphasis on vio- lence, music, and dramatic gestures. Significantly, the new drama emerged not from the rarefied world of the court but from the new world of entertainment and amusement (see the comparative illustration on p. 501). Its very commercial success, however, led to difficulties with the government, which periodically attempted to restrict or even suppress it. Early Kabuki was often performed by prostitutes, and sho- gunate officials, fearing that such activities could have a cor- rupting effect on the nation’s morals, prohibited women from appearing on the stage; at the same time, they attempted to create a new professional class of male actors to impersonate female characters on stage.
\”Dutch learning\”
All of the following were part of Japan’s \”Dutch learning\”:
medicine.
astronomy.
languages.
oil painting.

Although Japan was isolated from the Western world dur- ing much of the Tokugawa era, Japanese art was enriched by ideas from other cultures. Japanese pottery makers borrowed both techniques and designs from Korea to produce handsome ceramics. The passion for ”Dutch learning” inspired Japanese to study Western medicine, astronomy, and languages and also led to experimentation with oil painting and Western ideas of perspective and the interplay of light and dark. Some painters depicted the ”southern barbarians,” with their strange ships and costumes, large noses, and plumed hats. Europeans desired Japanese lacquerware and metal- work, inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl, and especially the ceramics, which were now as highly prized as those of the Chinese.

\”Dutch learning\”, and by extension \”Western learning\”) is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate’s policy of national isolation (sakoku).

Basho
Japanese Poet

was intrigued by the search for the meaning of existence.

In contrast to the popular literature of the Tokugawa period, poetry persevered in its more serious tradition. Although linked verse, so popular in the fourteenth and fif- teenth centuries, found a more lighthearted expression in the sixteenth century, the most exquisite poetry was produced in the seventeenth century by the greatest of all Japanese poets, Basho (BAH-shoh) (1644-1694).

woodblock prints
With the development of woodblock print- ing in the early seventeenth century, literature became avail- able to the common people, literacy levels rose, and lending libraries increased the accessibility of printed works. In con- trast to the previous mood of doom and gloom, the new prose was cheerful and even frivolous, its primary aim being to divert and amuse.
Utamaro, Hokusai and Hiroshige
Wood block print artists

One of the most renowned of the numerous block-print artists was Utamaro (OO-tah-mah-roh) (1754-1806), who painted erotic and sardonic women in everyday poses, such as walking down the street, cooking, or drying their bodies af- ter a bath. Hokusai (HOH-kuh-sy) (1760-1849) was famous for Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, a new and bold interpreta- tion of the Japanese landscape. Finally, Ando Hiroshige (AHN-doh hee-roh-SHEE-gay) (1797-1858) developed the genre of the travelogue print in his Fifty-Three Stations of the Tokaido Road, which presented ordinary scenes of daily life, both in the country and in the cities, all enveloped in a lyrical, quiet mood.

the Hermit Kingdom
The Joseon dynasty of Korea was frequently described as a hermit kingdom during the latter part of the dynasty. The term is still commonplace throughout Korea and is often used by Koreans themselves to describe pre-modern Korea.

This is the nickname given to the country of Korea because of their isolationists attitude.

developed a phonetic alphabet for writing the spoken Korean language in the 1400s.

Yi dynasty
Korean Dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; resotred aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
yangban
The aristocratic class in Korea that were used as administrators.

As in Japan, the dynasty continued to restrict entry into the bureaucracy to members of the aristocratic class, known in Korea as the yangban (YAHNG-ban) (or ”two groups,” civilian and military). At the same time, the peasantry remained in serflike conditions, working on government estates or on the manor holdings of the landed elite.

some aristocratic yangban became merchants, or even peasants, over time.

chronmin
A class of slaves, called chonmin (CHAWN- min), labored on government plantations or served in certain occupations, such as butchers and entertainers, considered beneath the dignity of other groups in the population.
hangul
Eventually, Korean society began to show signs of inde- pendence from Chinese orthodoxy. In the fifteenth century, a phonetic alphabet for writing the Korean spoken language (hangul) was devised. Although it was initially held in con- tempt by the elites and used primarily as a teaching device, eventually it became the medium for private correspondence and the publishing of fiction for a popular audience.
Gia Long and the Nguyen dynasty
To placate China, Vietnam was renamed Vietnam (South Viet), and the new imperial capital was placed in the city of Hue ́ (HWAY), a small river port roughly equidistant from the two rich river valleys that provided the country with its chief sustenance, wet rice. The founder of the new dynasty, who took the reign title of Gia Long, fended off French efforts to promote Christianity among his subjects and sought to promote traditional Confucian values among an increasingly diverse population.
Vietnam
it was isolated from the major maritime trade routes.
it avoided losing territory to European colonial powers.
its population became increasingly diverse.
civil war split the Dai Viet into two squabbling territories.

BUT
its population DID NOT remain homogeneous.

Japanese Fortress Palaces
A Japanese Castle. In imitation of European castle architecture, the Japanese perfected a new type of fortress-palace in the early seventeenth century. Strategically placed high on a hilltop, constructed of heavy stone with tiny windows, and fortified by numerous watchtowers and massive walls, these strongholds were impregnable to arrows and catapults. They served as a residence for the local daimyo, while the castle compound also housed his army and contained the seat of local government. Himeji (HEE-meh-jee) Castle, shown here, is one of the most beautiful in Japan.
18th-Century Population Explosion
Four developments enabled this
Better going conditions (climate improved)
People developed Immunities against epidemic diseases
Introduction of new foods (columbian exchange)
New weapons allowed more territory to be controlled and kept in order.

Between 1700 and 1800, Europe, China, and to a
lesser degree India and the Ottoman Empire experienced a dramatic growth in population. In Europe, the population grew from 120 million people to almost 200 million by 1800; in China, from less than 200 million to more than 300 million during the same period.

In China, population grew fast during the 1600-1800 period, reaching over 300,000,000 by 1800. The reasons included:
Relative peace and stability had prevailed during the early years of Qing rule.
New crops had been introduced from the New World.
Introduction of the development of faster growing Southeast Asian rice into China.
The political stability of China in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Moreover, the population was beginning to increase rap- idly. For centuries, China’s population had remained within a range of 50 to 100 million, rising in times of peace and pros- perity and falling in periods of foreign invasion and internal anarchy. During the Ming and the early Qing, however, the population increased from an estimated 70 to 80 million in 1390 to more than 300 million at the end of the eighteenth century. There were probably several reasons for this popula- tion increase: the relatively long period of peace and stability under the early Qing; the introduction of new crops from the Americas, including peanuts, sweet potatoes, and maize; and the planting of a new species of faster-growing rice from Southeast Asia (see the comparative essay ”Population Explo- sion” on p. 488).

Between 1700 and 1800, Europe, China, and to a
lesser degree India and the Ottoman Empire EARTH & experienced a dramatic growth in population. In ENVIRONMENT Europe, the population grew from 120 million
people to almost 200 million by 1800; in China, from less than 200 million to more than 300 million during the same period.

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