Chapter 17- Government

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Social security
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A contributory welfare program into which working Americans contribute a percentage of their wages and from which they receive cash benefits after retirement
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Medicare
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A form of national health insurance for the elderly and the disabled.
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Indexing
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Periodic process of adjusting social benefits or wages to account for increases in the cost of living.
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Cost-of-living adjustments (COLA’s)
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Changes made to the level of benefits of a government program based on the rate of inflation.
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Means testing
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A procedure by which potential beneficiaries of a public-assistance program establish their eligibility by demonstrating a genuine need for the assistance
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Medicaid
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A federally and state-financed, state-operated program providing medical services to low-income people.
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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
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The largest anti-proverty program, which provides recipients with a debit card for food at most grocery stores; formerly known as food stamps.
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In-kind benefits
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Noncash goods and services provided to needly individuals and families by the federal government.
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Entitlement
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A legal obligations of the federal government to provide payments to individuals, or groups of individuals, according to eligibility criteria or benefit rules.
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Equality of opportunity
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A widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential.
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Tax expenditures
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Government subsides provided to employers and employees thought tax deductions for amounts spent on health insurance and other benefits.
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Elite theory
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All important decisions are made by the chosen few (elites versus masses).
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Interest group theory
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So many pressure points in the three branches that interest groups can step in or out in the various competing sides. The government becomes the equilibrium point in the system, mediating between the competing interest.
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Bureaucratic theory
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All institutions, governments and non-governmental, have fallen under the control of the bureaucracy. This is due to the complexity of modern organizations.
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Pluralistic theory
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Political resources are so scatter that no single group could ever gain a monopoly. In any given political controversy, all participants get something (Robert Dahl)
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Bacharach & Barantz
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They focus in what the elite keep off the agenda
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Institutional Sclerosis
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Promises and at the end he or she cannot do anything.
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Pluralistic democracy
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Most votes win
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Agenda setting
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The part of the the process during which the problems get defined as political issues
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Policy formation
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The guidelines set forth by the policy
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Implementation
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The process by which polices are carried out
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Fragmentation of policymaking
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Fundamental nature of government in America
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Authority divided by _____ and _____.
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Separation of powers and federalism.
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Social Welfare
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The promotion of individual welfare thought government policies is controversial because it requires the government to choose between freedom and equality.
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What were the two phases the New Deal was compromised ?
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1) Was aimed at boosting form prices and lower unemployment. 2) Was aimed at the forgotten and the dispossessed.
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Great society
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Presidents Johnson’s Society included a variety of programs designed to redress political, social, and economic inequality. – Voting restrictions that targeted black Americans were eliminated. – Increased equality of educational opportunities was persuaded by providing federal aid to poor school districts.
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What were the two main periods in the US history?
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-New Deal -Johnson’s Great Society
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What is the the percentage of poverty in children in the US?
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Under 6: 30.3 % (24%)
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The welfare state was founded by _______.
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The Social Security Act of 1935
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What are the Welfare Categories?
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Contributory and Noncontrobutory
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Contributory Programs
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Social programs financed in whole or in part by taxation or other mandatory contributions by their present or future recipients. Including old age insurance or Social Security, Medicare for seniors, and unemployment.
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Non-contributory Programs
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Social programs that provide assistance to people on the basis of demonstrated need rather than any contribution they have made. Including public assistance to the needy. Temporary Assistance to needy Families (TANF)
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American welfare state
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It meant that the national government would oversee programs designed to promote economic security for all Americans
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Which was the first state that gave public aid to mothers with independent children?
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Illinois
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The Supreme Court case Goldberg v Kelly held that
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Government benefits cannot be taken away due process of law
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What the Great Depression prove to the American society?
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That poverty could be a result of imperfections in the economic system as well as of individual irresponsibility.
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The most important single force in the distribution and redistribution of opportunity in the United States is
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Education
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Under which president was comprehensive health care reform passed?
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Barack Obama
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The \”shadow welfare state\” refers to
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Employer-provided benefits like health insurance and pensions
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The social welfare system in the US
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Became public after private groups we’re handle to the Great Depression
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Which is a 1974 program that arguments benefits for the aged, blind, and disabled?
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Supplementary Security Income
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Which two government programs assist the working poor?
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Earned income tax credit Food stamps
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Which state has the largest public school population in the nations?
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Texas
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Which is the only advanced industrial nation without universal access it health care?
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United States
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What is the most important non-contributory program founded in 1935 by the original Social Security Act?
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Aid to families with dependent children
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Funds to pay for the growth in social programs like Social Security and Medicaid has come disproportionately from _____.
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Payroll Taxes
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What is the percentage of adults (age 25+) with a high school diploma?
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45 th
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What substituted Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)?
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Temporary assistance for needy families
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A procedure that requires applicants to show a financial need for assistance is the definition of
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Means testing
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Since welfare reform was enacted in 1996, the number of people on welfare has
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Dropped by more than half
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What is the percentage of 18-21 years old completing high school
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49 th
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What are the two theories of poverty?
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1) Cultural/ Behavioral 2) Structural/ Economical
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Most of the education if the American People is provided by
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State and local governments
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What is the largest single category of expansion established in 1965?
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Medicaid
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We can see that the elderly and the middle class receive the _______ benefits from the government’s social policies and that children and the working poor receive the ______ benefits
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Most; Fewest
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The primary source of cash assistance for the non working poor is
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TANF
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Cultural/ Behavioral Theory
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Poverty theory Real causes of property are behavior, values, and culture of the poor. Preferred by conservatives
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Charles Murray
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Poverty is simply the culture and the behavior of the poor.
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Entitlements account for _____ percent of the total federal budget.
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61
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The most important national education policies were developed
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After World War II
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Myron Magnet
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Cultural and Behavioral Theory People are poor not because they lack social, political and economic opportunities, but because they lack the inner resources to seize ample opportunities that surround them.
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In 2993, Congress and President Bush added what new benefit to Medicare?
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Prescription drugs
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James Payne
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Cultural/ Behavioral Theory Government can never pass or administer effective welfare reform. Government yields to the \”handout mentality\” based on the belief the poor deserve help whatever the reason
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Liberals tend to believe that economic success is.
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Not equally available to all Americans
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With respect to government public welfare assistance, by 1933 the question was
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How generous or restrictive the system was going to be
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Structural/ Economic Theory
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Liberals state that conservatives have overstated the extent to which property and welfare are traps in which families and individuals are traps
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No child left behind Act
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Created stronger federal requirement for testing and school accountability,requiring that every child in grades 3 though 8 be tested yearly for proficiency in math and reading.
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What is the percentage do prover try that spells las year?
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59.4 %
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William Wilson
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Structural/ Economic Theory Black sociologist, blacks moved to the north (better jobs)
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Approximately _____ percent of noneldery Americans received health insurance though their employers.
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20
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In 1986, President Clinton signed a law reforming the welfare system. This law
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Put time limits on how long a person could receive government aid.

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