Chapter 16 Part 2 Study Guide

question

What was the turning point of the war in the Pacific?
answer

The Battle of Midway Island
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What was the turning point of the war in Asia that established U.S. naval superiority over Japan in the Pacific?
answer

Midway Island
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Which of the following events turned the tide of the war in the Pacific against Japan and allowed the Allies to begin taking the offensive?
answer

Battle of Midway
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Why were the Pacific islands attacked and seized during the Allied “island hopping” chosen?
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They were least heavily defended by Japan.
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Who was the mastermind of the “island-hopping” strategy?
answer

Douglas MacArthur
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At the Potsdam Conference, Truman demanded ____ throughout Eastern Europe.
answer

freely elected governments
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Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a crushing defeat for Germany?
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The entire German Sixth Army, considered the best of the German troops, was lost.
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____, Hitler’s minister for armaments and munitions, was able to triple the production of armaments despite Allied air raids.
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Albert Speer
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What did the Allies agree to at the Yalta Conference?
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The established of a United Nation organization after the war.
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What was the fundamental strategic decision of World War II made by President Roosevelt and the British at the very beginning of the war?
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Concentrate first on the war in Europe and to take place the Pacific war against Japan on the back burner.
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What was the first naval battle in history in which all the fighting was done by carrier-based aircraft?
answer

The Battle of the Coral Sea
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What turned the tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific putting the Allies on the offensive?
answer

Battle of Midway
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What strategy did the United States rely mainly on a in waging war against Japan?
answer

Island hopping across the South Pacific while by passing Japanese strongholds.
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Until spring 1943, what was perhaps Hitler’s greatest opportunities of defeating Britain and winning the war?
answer

That German U-boat would destroy Allied shipping.
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Hitler’s advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of ____, after which his fortunes gradually declined.
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Stalingrad
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Why did the Allies postpone opening a second front in Europe until 1944?
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The British were fearful of becoming bogged down in a ground war in France.
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What did Roosevelt’s and Churchill’s insistence on the absolute and “unconditional surrender” of Germany guarantee?
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Guaranteed that Germany would have to be totally reconstructed after the war.
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Put the main wartime conferences in chronological order.
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N/A
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Know the dates for the following events in chronological order: Invasion of Italy, D Day, V-E Day, and V-J Day.
answer

Invasion of Italy, D-day, V-E Day, and V-J Day.
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What was the major consequence of the Allied conquest of Sicily in August 1943?
answer

The overthrow of Mussolini and Italy’s unconditional surrender.
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What did Germany do after the Italian surrender in August 1943?
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German army poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance.
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What was the real impact of the Italian front on World War II?
answer

Delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into East Europe.
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The cross-channel invasion of Normandy to open a second front in Europe was commanded by General _______.
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Hitler’s last-ditch attempt to achieve a victory against the Americans and British came in what battle?
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The Battle of the Bulge.
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What was the result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf for Japan’s navy?
answer

Japan was finished as a naval power.
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Why did President Truman want to avoid an invasion of Japan?
answer

Americans would suffer heavy losses.
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Which country was referred to as the “soft underbelly” of Europe by Winston Churchill?
answer

Italy
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At Yalta, the Big Three—the USSR, the United States, and Great Britain—all insisted that Germany do what?
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Germany surrender unconditionally.
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The Tehran Conference in 1943 set in motion a plan that would ultimately result in what for post war Germany?
answer

They being divided along a north-south line into East and West.
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Which of the following battles marked the final German offensive?
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Battle of the Bulge
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Where were atomic bombs dropped?
answer

Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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What combination led to the German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad?
answer

Russian troops and the Russian winter
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What does the use of kamikaze pilots show about Japanese culture?
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They valued national honor more than individual life.
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What was the Allies’ plan for victory over the Nazis?
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The Allies would fight Germany
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Why did President Truman agree to use the atomic bomb?
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To bring the war to the quickest possible end
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Who was the supreme commander of the Western Allied forces in Europe?
answer

General Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Which of the following occurred on D-Day?
answer

N/A
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What was the main target of the kamikazes?
answer

Ships
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Which of the following did Stalin repeatedly urge Churchill and Roosevelt to do in order to relieve German pressure on Soviet armies?
answer

Invade France
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Which general led the victorious troops in the Battle of El Alamein?
answer

Bernard Montgomery

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