Chapter 15 Psych

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Therapies directed at changing disordered behavior are referred to as a) action therapies. b) insight therapies. c) biomedical therapies. d) relationship therapies.
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a Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior, whereas insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
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Which of the following is the best example of biomedical therapy? a) use of antidepressants to treat depression b) use of insight therapy for social phobia c) psychoanalysis to help treat an anxiety disorder d) flooding treatment for an individual with obsessive-compulsive disorder
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a Any medical treatment that is directed at changing the physiological functioning of an individual is classified as a biomedical therapy. All of the remaining choices are types of psychotherapy treatments
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Approximately how long ago were the first efforts made to treat the mentally ill with kindness, rather than subjecting them to harsh physical treatment? a) 20 years ago b) 100 years ago c) 200 years ago d) 500 years ago
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c In 1793 Philippe Pinel unchained the mentally ill inmates at an asylum in Paris, France, and began the movement of humane treatment for the mentally ill.
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Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by a) Alfred Adler. b) Carl Rogers. c) Fritz Perls. d) Sigmund Freud
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d Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, while Rogers developed person-centered therapy.
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Freud believed one of the indications that he was close to discovering an unconscious conflict was when a patient became unwilling to talk about a topic. He referred to this response in the patient as a) transference. b) latent content. c) dream analysis. d) resistance.
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d Resistance occurred when a patient became unwilling to discuss a concept. In transference the patient would transfer positive and negative feelings for an authority figure in their past onto the therapist.
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Which of the following individuals would be least likely to benefit from psychoanalysis? a) Mary, who has a somatoform disorder b) Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder c) Pasha, who has panic attacks d) Lou, who suffers from anxiety
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b People with severe psychotic disorders are less likely to benefit from psychoanalysis than are people who suffer from somatoform or anxiety disorders
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The modern psychoanalyst provides guidance to the patient, asks questions, suggests helpful behaviors, and gives opinions and interpretations. This type of role for the therapist is described as a _____________ approach. a) free association b) directive c) biomedical d) nondirective
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b A directive approach involves asking questions and suggesting behaviors. The more traditional psychoanalyst typically takes a more nondirective approach in which the therapist remains neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client.
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What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness? a) reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns b) unrealistic modes of thought employed by many people c) mismatch between an individual’s ideal self and real self d) unresolved unconscious conflicts that occur between the id and superego
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c Rogers believed the closer the match between a person’s ideal and real selves, the happier the person. It was Freud, not Rogers, who viewed unresolved unconscious conflicts between the id and superego as the cause of personal problems.
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Which of the following was not one of the four key elements Rogers viewed as necessary for a successful person-therapist relationship? a) reflection b) unconditional positive regard c) authenticity d) resistance
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d Rogers felt a therapist must provide the four elements of reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, and authenticity in order for successful treatment
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What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist? a) to facilitate transference b) to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors c) to provide unconditional positive regard d) to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
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d The major goal of Gestalt therapists is to help clients become more aware of their feelings. Providing unconditional positive regard is the primary goal of a person-centered therapy, not Gestalt
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Which of the following is a limitation of humanistic therapy? a) Clients do not need to be verbal. b) There is not enough empirical research to support its basic ideas. c) It cannot be used in a variety of contexts. d) The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client.
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b The humanistic therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client because the therapist uses reflection as the main means of communication. However, unfortunately at this point there is not enough empirical evidence to support or refute the basic ideas of humanistic therapy.
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In the aversion therapy technique known as rapid smoking the client takes a puff on a cigarette every five or six seconds so that the nicotine now produces unpleasant responses such as nausea and dizziness, so that eventually the cigarette itself produces a sensation of nausea in the client. In the terms of classical conditioning, the cigarette functions as the ________ and the nicotine is the ___________. a) UCS; CS b) CS; UCS c) CR; UCS d) CS; UCR
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b Both the cigarette and nicotine are stimuli. In rapid smoking, the cigarette serves as the conditioned stimulus and the nicotine serves as the unconditioned stimulus.
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Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object? a) extinction b) punishment c) token economy d) systematic desensitization
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d Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object, while extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response.
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In a token economy, what role does the token play in shaping behavior? a) The tokens are used as punishment to decrease the maladaptive behavior. b) The tokens are used to reinforce the desired behavior. c) The token is the actual behavior itself. d) The token represents the written contract between the client and therapist
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b In a token economy, the tokens are the reinforcers used to shape and strengthen the desired behaviors
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What is an advantage of using operant conditioning in treating undesirable behaviors? a) The results are usually quickly obtained. b) Clients can get an understanding of the underlying cause of the problem. c) Unconscious urges are revealed. d) Clients can change distorted thought patterns that affect behavior
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a Operant conditioning is not concerned with the cause of the problems, rather it is concerned with changing behavior. However, operant conditioning does provide rapid change in behavior in comparison to other therapies.
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Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy? a) It focuses on the underlying cause of behavior and not the symptoms. b) Therapy typically lasts for several years and is very expensive. c) It focuses too much on the past. d) It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder
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d Behavior therapy may help relieve some symptoms but does not treat the overall disorder of schizophrenia
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What is the goal of cognitive therapy? a) to help clients gain insight into their unconscious b) to help people change their ways of thinking c) to change a person’s behavior through shaping and reinforcement d) to provide unconditional positive regard for the client
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b Cognitive therapy focuses on changing an individual’s cognitions or thought processes
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. Which of these clients is the most likely candidate for Aaron Beck’s form of cognitive therapy? a) Albert, who suffers from mania b) Barbara, who suffers from depression c) Robert, who suffers from schizophrenia d) Virginia, who has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder
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b Beck’s cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to depression
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Which approach assumes that disorders come from illogical, irrational cognitions and that changing the thinking patterns to more rational, logical ones will relieve the symptoms of the disorder? a) cognitive-behavioral b) person-centered c) psychoanalytic d) Gestalt
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a Cognitive behavioral therapists are concerned with helping clients change their irrational thoughts to more rational and positive thoughts. A person-centered therapist believes disorders come from a mismatch between the ideal self and the real self and a lack of unconditional positive regard
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According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of a) our behaviors. b) our irrational beliefs. c) the events that happen to us. d) other people’s irrational beliefs.
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b Ellis believes irrational beliefs cause dissatisfaction and depression
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Which of the following is the best example of an irrational belief that a therapist rational-emotive behavioral therapy would challenge you to change? a) It is disappointing when things don’t go my way b) If I fail this test, it will hurt my grade in this class but I will try to make it up on the next exam c) There must be something wrong with Bob since he turned down my invitation for a date d) Everyone should love and approve of me and if they don’t, there must be something wrong with me
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d Irrational beliefs typically have one thing in common; they are all-or-none types of statements.
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Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies? a) Clients do not need to be verbal. b) They treat the underlying cause of the problem. c) They are less expensive and short-term than typical insight therapies. d) The therapist decides which of the client’s beliefs are rational and which are irrational.
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c Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies are relatively inexpensive and are short-term
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An advantage to group therapy is that groups a) are a source of social support. b) allow countertransference to occur. c) provide unconditional approval to the group members. d) allow antisocial individuals to dominate group discussions
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a Group therapy provides social support for people who have similar problems
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In family therapy, the therapist would most likely a) focus on one individual who has been identified as the source of the problem. b) have each family member come in for therapy individually. c) provide unconditional approval to all the family members. d) focus on the entire family system to understand the problem.
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d Family therapy focuses on the entire family as a part of the problem.
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Which of the following is not true about self-help support groups? a) Self-help groups do not have leaders. b) Currently, only a limited number of self-help groups operate in the United States. c) Self-help groups are typically not directed by a licensed therapist. d) Self-help groups are usually free to attend.
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b Currently an extremely large number of self-help groups operate in the United States.
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__________ is a controversial form of therapy in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory. a) Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing b) Systematic desensitization c) Eye-memory therapy d) Eye therapy
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a EMDR is a form of therapy in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety.
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Most psychological professionals today take a(n) ______ view of psychotherapy. a) group treatment b) humanistic c) eclectic d) behavioral
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c An eclectic view is one that combines a number of different approaches to best fit the needs of the client.
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The most important aspect of a successful psychotherapy treatment is a) the length of the session. b) the specific approach of the therapist. c) the relationship between the client and the therapist. d) the severity of the disorder
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c A number of studies have found that the client-therapist relationship (also called the therapeutic alliance) is the best predictor of successful treatment
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Studies that have examined cultural and ethnic factors in the therapeutic relationship have found that a) members of minority racial or ethnic groups are more likely to continue treatment until the problem has been resolved. b) members of the majority racial or ethnic group usually have lower prevalence rates of disorders. c) members of minority racial or ethnic groups drop out of therapy at a higher rate than members of the majority group. d) members of minority racial or ethnic groups rarely or never seek therapy.
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c Members of minority groups are much more likely to drop out of therapy when compared to members of majority racial and ethnic groups
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Which of the following has not been found to be a barrier to effective psychotherapy when the cultural backgrounds of client and therapist are different? a) language differences b) differing cultural values c) nonverbal communication d) severity of the disorder
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d The severity of the disorder has not been found to be a cultural barrier for treatment.
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Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as a) hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations. b) excessive worry, repetitive thoughts, and compulsive behavior. c) hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior. d) manipulation, lying, and cheating.
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c Hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviors are defined as psychotic behaviors and are treated with antipsychotic drugs. Antidepressant drugs, not antipsychotic drugs, treat feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations.
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In what way is the new class of antidepressants known as the SSRIs an improvement over the older types of antidepressants? a) They work faster. b) They are more effective. c) They target a larger number of different neurotransmitters. d) They have fewer side effects.
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d The speed of action and effectiveness is similar among the three classes of antidepressants but the main difference is the number of negative side effects. The SSRIs actually target only one neurotransmitter: serotonin
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For which disorder was electroconvulsive therapy originally developed as a treatment? a) panic b) schizophrenia c) bipolar disorder d) cyclothymia
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b ECT was originally designed to induce seizures in schizophrenics.
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Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery? a) information given to a patient about a surgical procedure before the surgery in order to prevent anxiety b) surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders c) surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient d) a procedure in which a brief current of electricity is used to trigger a seizure that typically lasts one minute, causing the body to convulse
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b Severing the spinal cord would lead to the very negative side effect of paralysis of the body. Psychosurgery is performed on brain tissue.
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action therapies
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therapies in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
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antianxiety drugs
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drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers
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antidepressant drugs
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drugs used to treat depression and anxiety
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antipsychotic drugs
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drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior
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arbitrary inference
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence
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authenticity
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the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client
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aversion therapy
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form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
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behavior modification or applied behavior analysis
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the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
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behavior therapies
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action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior.
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bilateral cingulotomy
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surgical technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the anterior cingulate gyrus with the guidance of a magnetic resonance imaging machine for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with an electric current.
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biomedical therapy
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therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms; also defined as therapies that directly affect the functioning of the body and brain
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cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
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action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically.
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cognitive therapy
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therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
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contingency contract
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a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
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cybertherapy
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psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling.
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directive therapy
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in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client’s statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions.
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eclectic
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approach to therapy that results from combining elements of several different approaches or techniques.
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person’s head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion
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empathy
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the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client.
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exposure therapies
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behavioral techniques that expose individuals to anxiety- or fear-related stimuli, under carefully controlled conditions, to promote new learning.
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extinction
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the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior.
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family counseling (family therapy)
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a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family
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flooding
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technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
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free association
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psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations
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Gestalt therapy
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form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps the client to accept all parts of his or her feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing.
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insight therapies
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therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
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interpersonal therapy (IPT)
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form of therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems
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latent content
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the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
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magnification and minimization
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distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization).
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manifest
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content the actual content of one’s dream.
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modeling
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learning through the observation and imitation of others.
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nondirective therapy
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style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgmental listener while the client talks
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overgeneralization
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original.
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participant modeling
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technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
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personalization
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distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person.
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person-centered therapy
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a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens.
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prefrontal lobotomy
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psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed.
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psychoanalysis
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an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts
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psychodynamic therapy
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a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times and a more direct therapeutic approach.
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psychopharmacology
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the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders.
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psychosurgery
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surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
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psychotherapy
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therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional.
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rational-emotive behavioral therapy (REBT)
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cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements.
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reflection
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therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements
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reinforcement
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the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
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resistance
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occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent
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selective thinking
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distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects.
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self-help groups (support groups)
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a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support.
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systematic desensitization
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behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears
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therapeutic alliance
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the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding.
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therapy
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treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively.
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time-out
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an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities
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token economy
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the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.
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transference
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in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist.
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unconditional positive regard
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referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy.

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