Chapter 15: Cognitive Development in Adolescence Essay

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____________ are the fastest-growing ethnic minority group in the United States – ___ out of ___ immigrants are now ____________.
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Asian Americans, 2, 5, Asian
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Formal operational thought is more ____________ and ____________ than concrete operational thought.
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concrete, abstract
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Adolescents in the ____________ stage can conjure up make-believe situations, events that are purely hypothetical possibilities or abstract propositions and can try to reason logically about them.
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formal operational
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Another indication of the abstract quality of adolescents’ thought is their increased tendency to ____________.
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think about thought itself
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____________ dominates during the beginning of the formal operational stage when thought is full of ____________ and ____________.
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Assimilation, idealism, possibilities
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At the same time that adolescents think more abstractly and idealistically, they also think more ____________ about abstract concepts.
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logically
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____________ is Piaget’s formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses, about ways to solve problems.
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hypothetical-deductive reasoning
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____________ thinkers test their hypotheses with judiciously chosen questions and tests.
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Formal operational
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____________ thinkers often fail to understand the relation between a hypothesis and a well-chosen test of it, stubbornly clinging to ideas that already have been discounted.
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concrete operational
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Only about ___ in ___ young adolescents is a formal operational thinker.
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1, 3
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Education in the logic of ____________ and ____________ promotes the development of formal operational thinking.
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science, mathematics
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____________ is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents.
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Adolescent egocentrism
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The ____________ is adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior.
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imaginary audience
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The ____________ is the part of adolescent egocentism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility.
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personal fable
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Adolescents sense of ____________ makes them believe that no one can understand how they really feel.
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personal uniqueness
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Adolescents sense of ____________ may lead them to believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes that happen to other people.
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invincibility
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In ____________’s view, in the later years of childhood and continuing adolescence, individuals approach ____________ levels that may or may not be achieved, in contrast to the largely universal ____________ levels that young children attain.
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Deanna Kuhn, cognitive, cognitive
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By adolescence, considerable variation in ____________ is present across individuals.
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cognitive functioning
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Kuhn argues that the most important cognitive change in adolescence is improvement in ____________
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executive functioning
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____________ involves higher-order cognitive activities such as reasoning, making decisions, monitoring thinking critically, and monitoring one’s cognitive progress.
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Executive functioning
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____________ maintains that incomplete information processing occurs because the children’s short term memory was ____________.
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Sternberg, overloaded
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____________ argues that adolescents probably have more storage space in ____________, which results in fewer errors on such problems as ____________.
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Sternberg, short-term memory, analogies
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British psychologist ____________ proposed the concept of working memory.
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Alan Baddeley
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____________ is a kind of “mental workbench” where information is manipulated and assembled to help make decisions, solve problems, and comprehend written and spoken language.
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Working memory
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Working memory increased substantially from ___ through ___ years of age – that is, through the transition to adulthood and beyond – no matter what the task.
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8, 24
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Adolescent years are likely to be an important developmental period for improvement in ____________.
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working memory
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Higher-order, complex cognitive processes are often called ____________.
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executive functioning
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The ____________ states that decision making is influenced by two cognitive systems – one analytical and one experiential, which compete with each other.
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dual-process model
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If an individual has not developed a solid basis of fundamental skills (such as literacy and math skills) during childhood, ____________ skills are unlikely to mature in adolescence.
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critical-thinking
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It is the ____________ system – monitoring and managing actual experiences – that benefits adolescents’ decision making, not the ____________ system.
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experiential, analytical
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Some experts on adolescent cognition argue that in many cases adolescents benefit from both ____________ and ____________ systems.
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experiential, analytical
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____________ are beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be and involve what is important to us.
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Values
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Over the past three decades, traditional-aged college students have shown an increased concern for ____________ and a decreased concern for the ____________, especially for the ____________.
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personal well-being, well-being of others, disadvantaged
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Damon found that only about ___ percent of 12 to 22 year olds in the United States expressed “a clear vision of where they want to go, what they want to accomplish in life, and why.
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20
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____________ is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.
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Service learning
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Those who worked directly with individuals in need were better adjusted ____________, whereas those who worked for organizations had better ____________ outcomes.
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academically, civic
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___ percent of U.S. public high schools require students to participate in service learning.
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26
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The percentage of college freshman who said the chances are very good that they will participate in volunteer or community serve programs ____________ from ___ percent in 1990 to ___ percent in 2008.
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increased, 18, 28.3
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Interest in developing a meaningful philosophy of life increased from ___ percent to ___ percent of U.S. freshman from 2001 to 2008.
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39, 51.4
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More than 70 years ago, educator ____________ recognized that, even when schools do not have specific programs in moral education, they provide moral education though a ____________.
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John Dewey, hidden curriculum
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The ____________ is conveyed by the moral atmosphere that is a part of every school.
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hidden curriculum
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Currently ___ out of 50 states have mandates regarding character education.
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40
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____________ is a direct education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves or others.
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Character education
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In the ____________ approach, every school should have an explicit moral code that is clearly communicated to students.
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character education
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Rather than just instructing adolescents in refraining from engaging in morally deviant behavior, a ____________ advocates educating students in the importance of engaging in prosocial behaviors, such as considering others feelings, being sensitive to others, and helping others.
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care perspective
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____________ means helping people to make clear what is important to them, what is worth working for, and what purpose their lives are to serve.
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Values clarification
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In the ____________ approach, students are encouraged to define their own values and understand the values of others.
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values clarification
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In ____________ exercises, there are no right or wrong answers.
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values clarification
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____________ is a concept based on the belief that students should learn to value such aspects of life as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops.
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Cognitive moral education
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____________ recognized that the moral atmosphere of the school is more important than he initially envisioned.
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Kohlberg
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____________ argues that moral development should focus on social relationships more than Kohlberg does.
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Carol Gilligan
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In Carol Gilligan’s view, schools should better recognize the importance of ____________ in the development of adolescent girls.
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relationships
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A 2006 survey revealed that ___ percent of secondary school students said they had cheated on a test in school during the past year.
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60
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How many students reported that they had plagiarized information for the Internet in the past year?
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one-third
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____________ emphasizes an integrative approach to moral education.
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Darcia Narvaez
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An ____________ approach to moral education encompasses both the reflective moral thinking and commitment to justice advocated in Kohlberg’s approach, and developing a particular moral character as advocated in the character education approach.
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integrative
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In the ____________, students are given multiple opportunities to discuss other students’ experiences, which encourages empathy and perspective taking, and they participate in exercises that encourage them to reflect on their own behaviors in terms of such values as fairness and social responsibility.
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Child Development Project
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___ percent of 13 to 18 year olds said that they believe in God or a universal spirit.
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95
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Almost ___ percent of adolescents said that they pray.
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75
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About ___ percent of adolescents indicated that they had attended religious services within the past week.
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50
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Almost ___ percent of the youth said that it is very important for a young person to learn religious faith.
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50
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More change in religiousness occurred from ___ to ___ years of age than from ___ to ___ years of age.
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14, 18, 20, 25
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Attending religious services was highest at ___ years of age, declined from ___ to ___ years of age, and increased at ___ years of age.
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14, 14, 18, 20
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Religious youth were almost ___ times as likely to engage in community service as nonreligious youth.
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3
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The increase in ____________ thinking lets adolescents consider various ideas about religious and spiritual concepts.
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abstract
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Adolescents’ increased ____________ thinking provides a foundation for thinking about whether religion provides the best route to a better, more ideal world than the present.
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idealistic
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Adolescents’ increased ____________ reasoning gives them the ability to develop hypotheses and systematically sort through different answers to spiritual questions.
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logical
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Adolescents who have a ____________ with their parents, or are securely attached to them, are likely to adopt their parents’ religious affiliation.
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positive relationship
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When students make the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school, they experience the ____________, the circumstance of moving from teh top position to the lowest position.
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top-dog phenomenon
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The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development issued an extremely ____________ evaluation of U.S. ____________.
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negative, middle schools
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Vulnerable youth who mainly engaged in ____________ or spent little time in positive organized ____________ were less likely to go to college.
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paid work, extracurricular activities
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The transition to high school was especially challenging for ____________ and ____________ youth declined from middle to high school.
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African American, Latino
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In the last half of the twentieth century and the first several years of the twenty-first century, U.S. high school dropout rates ____________.
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declined
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In the 1940s, more than ___ percent of U.S. 16 to 24 year olds had dropped out of school; by 2006, this figure had decreased to ___ percent.
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50, 9.3
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The dropout rate of ____________ adolescents remains ____________, although it has been ____________ in the twenty-first century.
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Latino, high, decreasing
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The highest dropout rate in the United States occurs for ____________ youth – less than ___ percent finish their high school education.
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Native American, 50
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____________ (___ percent) are more likely to drop out than ____________ (___ percent).
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Males, 12, females, 9
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The gender gap in dropout rates is especially large for ____________ adolescents and ____________ adolescents.
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Latino, African American
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Almost ___ percent of the dropouts cited school-related reasons for leaving school.
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50
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___ percent of the dropouts (but ___ percent of the Latino students) cited economic reasons.
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20, 40
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Approximately how many of the girls who drop out of school do so for personal reasons, such as pregnancy or marriage?
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one-third
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____________ is an innovative comprehensive, long-term dropout prevention program serving more than 15,000 children.
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“I Have a Dream”
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Personality-type theory is ____________’s theory.
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John Holland
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____________ is Holland’s theory that an effort should be made to match an individual’s career choice with the individual’s personality.
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Personality-type theory
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Individuals are more ____________ and ____________ than Holland’s theory suggests; most individuals are not pure types.
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varied, complex
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On the average, high school students spend less than ___ hours per year with guidance counselors, and in some schools the average is even less.
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3
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Youth in low-income circumstances may have more limited ____________.
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career choices
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Piaget’s formal operational stage begins at age ___.
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11
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Critical thinking increases with age and was found in only ___ percent of eleventh graders.
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43
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____________ is thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating evidence.
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Critical thinking
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The abstract quality of thinking during the formal operational stage is evident in the adolescent’s ____________ ability.
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verbal problem-solving
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Cognition is an ____________, not a ____________.
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individual construct, stage

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