Chapter 13 Western Civilizations

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The northern Christian humanists
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championed the study of classical and early Christian texts to reform the Catholic Church
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The author of Utopia, a satire on European government and society, was
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Thomas More
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In his “philosophy of Christ,” Erasmus emphasized
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inner piety
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The religious reformer who “laid the egg that Luther hatched” was
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Desiderius Erasmus
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Popular religion in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance was marked by
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greater popular belief in the spiritual utility of relics and indulgences
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The reforming religious organization of the late fifteenth century that included both clergy and laymen was
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Oratory of Divine Love
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Luther’s religious crisis came to a head over his growing belief that
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no amount of good works could satisfy God’s righteousness
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The early fifteenth century religious reformer who was burned at the stake was
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John Hus
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For Luther, the only sure source of truth and the only reliable path of faith, other than justification, was
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the Bible
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The event that eventually led to Luther’s break with the church was
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widespread sale of indulgences by preaching monks
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Luther’s pamphlet, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church,
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attacked the sacramental system of the church
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The Edict of Worms
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made Luther an outlaw within the Holy Roman Empire
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Luther’s ideas were spread primarily through
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sermons
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The Peasants’ War of 1524-1525
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was strongly opposed by Luther who saw it as a social revolution from below against God’s divine order
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Concerning the sacraments of the Catholic Church, Luther
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rejected all of them except baptism and communion, or the Lord’s Supper
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At its outset, the Reformation in Germany was
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largely an urban phenomenon
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Though Luther was condemned at the Diet of Worms, he survived because he was protected by
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Ulrich Zwingli
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Which of the following was not a central belief of Lutheranism?
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The sale of indulgences is a proper revenue source for a church
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Although Charles V had many adversaries, his chief concern during his reign was
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Francis I of France
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In the eastern part of his empire, Charles V faced a threat to his power from
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the Ottoman empire
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The Schmalkaldic War in Germany ended in 1555 with the
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Peace of Augsburg
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The Religious Peace of Augsburg settled the Lutheran problem by adopting the principle that
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the ruler of each territory determined the religion there
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Luther’s ideas were most readily accepted in
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Scandinavia
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In the sixteenth century, Switzerland
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was made up of thirteen cantons, under the leadership of wealthy bourgeoisie.
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Zwingli’s interpretation of the Lord’s Supper differed from Luther’s in that
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Zwingli said the ceremony was only symbolic and that no real transformation in the bread and wine occurred
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The Swiss religious reformer who established the Protestant Reformation in Zurich was
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Zwingli
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The Anabaptists
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advocated adult baptism, and if they had been baptized as children, a second baptism
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The Reformation in England under Henry VIII
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was triggered by Henry’s desire to annul his marriage.
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Millenarianism is the belief that
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the end of the world is imminent.
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England’s break with the Roman church became official with the passage of the
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Act of Supremacy.
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Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn ended when he executed her for
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adultery
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Mary I Tudor earned her nickname “bloody Mary” by persecuting
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Protestants
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England’s Queen Elizabeth could best be described as a
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moderate Protestant
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Which of the following are among the chief characteristics of John Calvin’s reform movement?
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predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God
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In Calvin’s theology, leading a godly life would be evidence that you
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have already been chosen to go to heaven.
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In Geneva, the Calvinists
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imposed strict penalties for blasphemy and immoral behavior.
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The Reformation changed conceptions of the family by
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extolling the superior state of marriage over celibacy
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The Reformation affected the development of education in Europe by
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expanding public access to primary schooling and improving secondary schooling through gymnasiums and ministerial training
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The Reformation successfully abolished all of the following from the lives of Europe’s Protestant community except for
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taverns

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