Chapter 13: Therapy

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Trephining
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Chipping a hole in the skull to let the demons out
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Hippocrates proposed that
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Physical and psychological disorders result from imbalances among the 4 humors (liquids) of the body
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During what centuries were those who suffered from psychological disorders accused of being witches?
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16th and 17th
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Memser utilized “____________ “as a form of therapy to treat patients which eventually evolved into ___________
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Magnetism, hypnotism
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Primary prevention
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Designed to prevent disorders from occurring
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Examples of primary prevention
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Workshops on stress reduction or community recreation programs
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Secondary prevention
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Designed to detect existing disorders and provide treatment at early stages
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Examples of secondary prevention
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A crisis telephone line for individuals experiencing extreme stress
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Tertiary prevention
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Reduce the damage caused by disorders for both the patients and society
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Examples of tertiary prevention
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An after-care program for former patients of psychiatric hospitals
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Biomedical therapies
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A set of treatments for mental illnesses that include drugs, psychosurgery and electroconvulsive therapy
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Psychological therapies
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Treatment for psychological disorders such as psychotherapy or therapies based on classical or operant conditioning principles
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Psychotherapy
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A special relationship between a distressed person and a trained therapist in which the therapist aids the client in developing awareness and changing his or her thinking, feeling and behavior
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Therapist
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Encompasses a diverse group of people with different backgrounds working in the mental health profession
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5 stages of therapy
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1) Introduction: the therapist and client meet and begin the process of building rapport 2) Goal-setting: Identify and describe the presenting problem and begin a strategy to intervene and thus alter the issue 3) Intervention: client and therapist work collaboratively to implement the strategy 4) Evaluation: assess how well the therapy has gone thus far 5) Termination: end of therapy, sometimes accompanied by follow-up appointments
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Psychoanalytic therapy
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Treatment of maladaptive behavior developed by Freud; its goal is to uncover conscious conflicts and feelings and bring them to conscious level
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Free association
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A psychonanalytic technique in which the patient is asked to say whatever comes to mind without censoring anything
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Resistance
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Occurs during free association when the patient’s flow of words and thoughts stops; cessation of associations might indicate that defense mechanisms of repression is operating to protect the ego
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Transference
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In psychoanalysis, the patient’s positive or negative reaction tot he therapist, which is believed to reflect the patient’s relationship to a significant person outside of therapy
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Humanistic therapy
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Therapies that emphasize the present and the ablity of the client to solve their own problems once they are able to accept themselves
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Client-centered therapy was developed by
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Carl Rogers
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Client-centered therapy
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Therapy designed to create an environment in which the client is able to find solutions to his or her problems
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Cognitive therapy
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Therapies designed to change cognitions in order to eliminate maladaptive behaviors
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Rational-emotive behavior therapy
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A cognitive therapy in which the therapist challenges and questions the client’s irrational ideas
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Which therapy utilizes Ellis’ ABC framework?
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Rational-emotive behavior therapy
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ABC framework
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A: activating event related to an important desire, goal or preference B: the belief, usually related to failure to attain the goal, that follows the activating event C: consequences, feelings of anger, anxiety, and depression
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Systematic desensitization
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A behavioral technique based on classical conditioning that is used to treat phobias; the technique usually combines training in relaxation with exposure to imagined scenes related to a phobia
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Cognitive behavior therapy
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Therapeutic approach that consciously combines behavioral and cognitive therapies and practices
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Group therapyy
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Clients discuss problems in groups that may include individuals with similar problems
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Common features of group therapies
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Self-disclosure, acceptance and support, norm clarification, social learning, vicarious learning, self-understanding
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Eysenck’s conclusion on the effectiveness of psychotherapy
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Psychotherapy clients are just as likely to improve without treatmentn
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Pharmacotherapy
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Focuses on the biological underpinnings of a disorder
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Antianxiety drugs
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Minor tranquillizers, such as the benzodiazepines, used to reduce anxiety, usually be increasing the ability of the neurotransmitter GABA to bind at synapses
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3 categories of anti-depression drugs
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Tricyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
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Tricyclic antidepressants
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Prevent the reuptake of norepinephrien and serotonin
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MAO inhibitors
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Prevent an enzyme from breaking down norepinephrine and serotonin
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
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Reduce the reuptake of serotonin
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Prozac is a
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
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Antipsychotic drugs
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Drugs that reduce the syptoms of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine receptoors in the brain; the typical drug works by blocking dopamine while atypical drugs also block serotonin
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Serious adverse side effect of antipsychotic drugs
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Tardive dyskinesia
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Tardive dyskinesia
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Involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
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Electroconvulsive therapy
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Biomedical treatment in which electric current is passed through the brain to induce a seizure
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Electroconvulsive therapy is used most often to treat
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Severe depression
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How did the Greeks view psychological disorders?
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They offered naturalistic explanations for the disorders
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The community mental health movement placed the greatest emphasis on
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Preventing mental illness
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A group of women who have been victims of rape establish a crisis line for rape victims. What type of prevention program does this represent?
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Secondary
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What is the primary goal of psychoanalytic therapy?
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To help patients develop insight into their behaviors
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According to humanistic therapies, what types of clients are better able to resolve their own problems?
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Clients who are more accepting
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Judy’s therapist listens to hehr without interrupting, never evaluating or judging her. This therapist is demonstrating
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Unconditional positive regard
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Which therapy is based on the assumption that our emotional responses are an outgrowth of our cognitions?
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Rational-emotive
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Beck’s cognitive therapy is used primarily to treat
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Depression
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What do behavior therapists see as the cause of maladaptive behaviors?
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Learning
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Which form of therapy is the preferred treatment for phobias?
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Behavioral
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What is the major class of antianxiety drugs such as Valium?
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Benzodiazepines
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What is the most serious side effect of treatment with clozapine?
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Inability to manufacture white blood cells
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For which disorder was ECT originally developed?
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Schizophrenia

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