Chapter 13: Social Psychology

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Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates
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fundamental attribution error
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Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon
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Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of
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role playing on attitude change
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In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of
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normative social influences
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Participants in Milgram’s obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of
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learning
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Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates
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social facilitation
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When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates
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group polarlization
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Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate
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in group bias
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When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of
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the just-world phenomenon
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After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women’s sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman’s friendliness as sexual interest.
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more; more
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When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of
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the mere exposure effect
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Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?
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the two-factor effect
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Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in
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the bystander effect
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Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it’s personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city’s already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of
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social trip
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The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of
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subordinate roles
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The fundamental attribution error involves
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underestimating social constrains on another’s behavior
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Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities?
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cognitive dissonance theory
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Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated
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the chameleon effect
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Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when
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participants are not observed by other group members when they are giving their answers
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In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought
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no others were pulling with them
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Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of
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deindividualization

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