Chapter 13: Section 2 Europe Plunges into War

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Mobilization-
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In response to Austria’s declaration of war, Russia, Serbia’s ally, began moving its army towards the Russian-Austrian border, and the German border.
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Mobilization Effect
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This caused Germany to declare war on Russia and France. Britain declared war on Germany.
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Central Powers
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Germany and Austria-Hungry–located in the heart of Europe. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would later join in hopes of regaining lost territories.
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Allied Powers
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Great Britain, France, Russia; later Japan and Italy
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Accused previous allies of causing the War
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Italy
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Sir Edward Grey
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Britain’s foreign minister, who was among the few that predicted that WWI would be a long, bloody war.
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Western Front
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Deadlocked region of Northern France; The region of norther France where the forces of the Allies and Central powers Powers battled each other
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Deadlock
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Stalemate
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Eastern Front
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The region along the German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks
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Schlieffen Plan
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German battle strategy which called for attacking and defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia.
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Reason for Schlieffen Plan
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Germany faced a war on two fronts and believed it could carry out this strategy because Russia lagged behind in it railroad system and would take longer to supply its front lines
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Speed
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Vital to successfully complete the Schlieffen Plant
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First Battle of Marne
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German forces swept into France 40 miles from Paris. Major victory appeared close, however Allies regrouped and attacked the Germans. Germans retreated. Considered the single most important event of the war.
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Result of the First Battle of Marne
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Germans defeated and Schlieffen Plan destroyed. Quick victory in West seemed impossible; Russians already invaded Germany. Germany forced to battle a long war on two fronts.
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Trench Warfare
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Opposing armies on Western Front dug miles of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire. Soldiers fought each other front trenches.
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No Man’s Land
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The space between the opposing trench.–bombed out landscape
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Terrain of Death
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Western Front that stretched nearly 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss border.
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Effects of Trench Warfare
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huge loss of human life for small land gains sleep nearly impossible swarmed with rats no fresh food
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The New Weapons of War
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1) poison gas 2) machine guns 3) Tanks,4) submarines
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poison gas
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Introduced by Germans; caused blindness, severe blisters, death by choking
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machine gun
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Made it difficult for forces to advance; wiped out wave of attackers
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tank
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Introduced by the British; armored combat vehicle moved on chain tracks
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submarine
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Introduced by Germans; utilized torpedo, underwater missile
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Battle of Verdun
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German’s massive attack against the France in the each side lost 300,00 men; British came to France’s aid in the valley of Somme River.
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Battle of Somme
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British attacked the Germans for 4 months; each side suffered 1/2 million casualities–each gained no more than 4-5 miles
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Battle of Tannenberg
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4 day battle where Germany counterattacked the Russian forces; Germany crushed the invading Russian army and drove it into full retreat out of Austria-Hungary.
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Cause: Russia’s war effort near collapse–
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1.Due to lack of industrialization. Short of food, guns, ammunition, clothing, boots blankets 2.Allied supply shipments limited by German control of Baltic Sea; their submarine campaign in North Sea, Ottoman controlled straits leading from Med. to Black Sea
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Only Russian Asset
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The number of people available to fight against Germany–holding the Germans in the East so they were not able to go full force in the West.

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