Chapter 13 Review

1. Inflated estimates of the value of antidepressant drugs are in large part due to the fact
that patient recovery often results from
A) the therapeutic touch.
B) the double-blind procedure.
C) the placebo effect.
D) meta-analysis.
E) stress inoculation training.
c
2. Dr. Genscher believes that most psychological disorders result from chemical
abnormalities. In her work as a therapist, Dr. Genscher is most likely to make use of
A) psychosurgery.
B) meta-analysis.
C) systematic desensitization.
D) drug therapies.
E) transference.
d
3. With ________, the therapist replaces a fearful response with a relaxation response.
A) systematic desensitization
B) free association
C) aversive conditioning
D) transference
E) meta-analysis
a
4. Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of
the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of
A) unconditional positive regard.
B) the placebo effect.
C) transference.
D) therapeutic touch.
E) free association.
c
5. Helping patients gain awareness of their unconscious conflicts and defensive behaviors
is a major goal of both psychoanalysis and
A) systematic desensitization.
B) psychodynamic therapy.
C) stress inoculation training.
D) light exposure therapy.
E) humanistic therapy.
b
6. Teaching people to stop blaming themselves for failures and negative circumstances
beyond their control is of most direct concern to ________ therapists.
A) psychoanalytic
B) cognitive
C) eclectic
D) client-centered
E) behavior
b
7. Repeatedly introducing people to things they fear and avoid is most characteristic of
A) stress inoculation training.
B) exposure therapies.
C) behavior modification.
D) rTMS.
E) tardive dyskinesia.
b
8. Virtual reality exposure therapy is most likely to prove effective in the treatment of
A) personality disorders.
B) hallucinations.
C) obsessions.
D) depression.
E) phobias.
e
9. Which drug sometimes helps patients exhibiting negative symptoms of schizophrenia
such as apathy and withdrawal?
A) Clozaril
B) Prozac
C) Xanax
D) lithium
E) Paxil
a
10. Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients
A) focus on their immediate conscious feelings.
B) feel more trusting toward others.
C) become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
D) develop greater self-esteem.
E) overcome negative conditioned behaviors.
c
11. Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is
most central to the process of
A) classical conditioning.
B) light exposure therapy.
C) behavior modification.
D) progressive relaxation.
E) systematic desensitization.
c
12. To understand his patients’ repressed conflicts, Freud sought to identify the ________ of
their dreams.
A) neurogenesis
B) virtual reality
C) latent content
D) spontaneous recovery
E) systematic desensitization
c
13. The approach that has helped children with autism learn to function successfully in
school involves
A) operant conditioning.
B) systematic desensitization.
C) the double-blind procedure.
D) family therapy.
E) aversive conditioning.
a
14. Psychodynamic therapies try to understand patients’ current symptoms by focusing on
recurring patterns in their
A) interpersonal relationships.
B) conditioned behaviors.
C) eating habits and drug use.
D) self-blaming explanations.
E) childhood experiences.
a
15. Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment
they received. This helps us understand why therapists
A) typically take an eclectic approach to therapy.
B) prefer client-centered therapy over other forms of treatment.
C) interpret patients’ transference early in the course of therapy.
D) tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
E) believe that biomedical therapies are more effective in the long run.
d
16. Replacing a negative response with a positive response is to systematic desensitization
as replacing a positive response with a negative response is to
A) transference.
B) operant conditioning.
C) aversive conditioning.
D) eclectic therapy.
E) electroconvulsive therapy.
c
17. The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.
A) unconditional positive regard
B) systematic desensitization
C) free association
D) behavior modification
E) psychoanalysis
d
18. Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ________ therapies seek to
promote personal growth and self-fulfillment.
A) psychodynamic
B) biomedical
C) behavior
D) humanistic
E) eclectic
d
19. Which of the following is the best description of behavior modification?
A) Patients are helped to identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
B) Clients’ illogical ways of thinking are vigorously challenged.
C) Patients’ actions are influenced by controlling the consequences of those actions.
D) What a client says during the course of therapy is repeated or rephrased.
E) Attention is focused on clients’ positive and negative feelings toward their
therapists.
c
20. Which of the following best illustrates a form of psychotherapy?
A) systematic desensitization
B) electroconvulsive therapy
C) psychosurgery
D) rTMS
E) psychopharmacology
a
21. Psychoanalysts would suggest that resistance during therapy supports and maintains the
process of
A) meta-analysis.
B) transference.
C) free association.
D) dream interpretation.
E) repression.
e
22. Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy indicates that:
A) clients are generally satisfied with the effectiveness of therapy.
B) clients’ perceptions are the best evidence available for the effectiveness of therapy.
C) clients tend to underestimate how much they have improved as a result of therapy.
D) therapy is no more effective than talking to a friend.
E) therapy is perceived as less effective than drug treatments.
a
23. Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
A) antidepressant
B) antipsychotic
C) mood-stabilizing
D) antianxiety
E) psychodynamic
d
24. The double-blind procedure involves
A) the avoidance of eye contact between patient and therapist during free association.
B) a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given
patient is receiving a drug or a placebo.
C) blocking anxiety-arousing material from consciousness during therapy.
D) the simultaneous use of two or more therapeutic treatments in the hope that at least
one will be effective.
E) replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.
b
25. In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be
A) unconditioned stimuli.
B) conditioned stimuli.
C) unconditioned responses.
D) conditioned responses.
E) neutral stimuli.
d
The DSM-V is used to ______
various psychological disorders
*identify
To be labeled as a disorder, behavior mush be these three things
*distressful
dysfunctional
*deviant
This common diagnosis
(normally in children)
includes symptoms of
inattention, hyperactivity, and
impulsivity
ADHD
Ongoing patterns of behavior
that are different from those
of most other people in your
culture are best characterized
as this
deviant
Of the three D’s, this one is
most likely absent from a
psychopath’s behavior
*Distressful
When persistent, distressful
anxiety cannot fit into a specific category, it is labeled as this
General Anxiety Disorder
This perspective views anxiety as being produced by the submerged mental energy associated with repressed impulses
*Psychoanalytic
Episodes of intense dread
that last for several
minutes and are
accompanied by shortness
of breath, trembling, or
dizziness are characterized
as this
*Panic Disorder
Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of these
*Phobias
Repetitive behaviors, such as
checking locks, are referred
to as these
*Compulsions
The “common cold” of mood
disorders, due to its
pervasiveness
Depression, or Major
Depressive Disorder
Cancer survivors who
develop a fresh delight in their children and savor the joy of each new day best illustrate the effect of this
Post-traumatic Growth
Bipolar is classified as this type of disorder
Mood
Conversion disorder and
hypochondriasis are classified
as this type of disorder
**Somatic or Somatoform
Disorganized thoughts is to _______ as a disturbance of consciousness is to ______
Schizo; DID
Developed “client centered” therapy
Carl Rogers
Token economies are based on the principles of this psychologist’s work
*B. F. Skinner
A therapist suggests you are blaming your teachers and parents for your bad grades; the therapist’s approach likely reflects this perspective
*Cognitive
This model, or perspective, of psychologically disordered behavior is likely to be criticized for neglecting social and psychological factors
Medical (or Biomedical)
Perspectives: Free association is to ______ as systematic desensitization is to _______
*Psychoanalysis; *Behavioral
Active listening is a key
component of this
psychotherapy
Client-centered
(or Humanistic)
The process of maintaining
appropriate patient behaviors with progressing positive
rewards instead of
punishment is likely to be some form of this
*Token Economy
The process of associating
unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences
Aversive Conditioning
The phrase, “No person is an island” is most likely to be uttered during a session of this type of psychotherapy
Family or Group Therapy
Frank was very depressed when
he started psychotherapy, but felt much better by the end. At least some of his improvement is attributed to this phenomenon
*Regression Toward the Mean
The study of how drugs affect mind and behavior
Psychopharmacology
Most psychologists take this kind of approach to therapy,
which often includes
medicine and psychotherapy
Eclectic
Xanax and Ativan are
common drugs of this type
Antianxiety
Extended use or over-dosage of antipsychotic drugs can lead to this condition
Tardive Dyskinesia
This type of psychosurgery
often produced uncreative,
lethargic, immature patients
Lobotomy
Jeff rarely goes outside his house.
He orders all his food and works
from home via computer. His
behavior is characteristic of this
phobia.
Agoraphobia

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